For other uses, see Penguin (disambiguation).
Fossil range: Paleocene-Recent
Chinstrap Penguin, peguins Pygoscelis antarctica
- For extinct genera, see Systematics
Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are an penuins order of aquatic, flightless birds living in the panguins Southern Hemisphere.
- 1 Species and habitats
- 2 Evolution
- 3 Anatomy
- 4 Mating penguns habits
- 4.1 Male pnguins bonding behaviour
- 5 Name
- 6 Penguins in penguinss popular culture
- 6.1 Penguins and pengguins polar bears
- 6.2 Other meanings
- 7 External links
- 8 References
- 9 Gallery
Species and habitats
The number penduins of penguin species has been and still is a matter of debate. The numbers club penguin of penguin species listed in the literature varies between 16 and 19 species. penguins Some sources consider the White-Flippered Penguin a separate Eudyptula species, although today it is penguin generally considered a subspecies of the Little Penguin (e.g. Williams, 1995; Davis & Renner, 2003). Similarly, club penguin cheats it is still unclear whether the Royal Penguin is merely emperor penguin a colour morph of the Macaroni penguin. Also possibly eligible pittsburgh penguins to be treated as a separate species is the Northern population of Rockhopper penguins emperor penguins (Davis & Renner, 2003). Although all penguin species are native to the southern hemisphere, they are not, contrary to popular belief, cartoon penguins found only in cold climates, such as Antarctica. march of the penguins In fact, only a few species of penguin actually live african penguins so far south. Three species live in the tropics; one lives as far north as the Galápagos baby penguins Islands (the Galápagos Penguin) and will occasionally cross the equator while feeding.
The largest living linux penguin species is the Emperor Penguin club penguin secrets (Aptenodytes forsteri): adults average about 1.1 m (3 ft 7 in) tall and weigh 35 kg king penguin (75 lb) or more. The smallest penguin species is penguin chat the Little Blue Penguin (also known as the Fairy Penguin), which stands around 40 cm tall (16 in) pictures of penguins and weighs 1 kg (2.2 lb). Generally larger penguins penguin books retain heat better, and thus inhabit colder regions, while smaller penguins are found cartoon penguin in temperate or even tropical climates (see also Bergmann's Rule). Some prehistoric species attained enormous sizes, becoming as high penguin species as an adult human; see below for more.
Most penguins feed on krill, fish, squid, and play penguin club other forms of sealife caught while swimming underwater. They spend half of their life penguin pictures on land and half in bloody penguin the oceans.
When mothers lose a chick, they sometimes attempt to steal another mother's chick, usually unsuccessfully poke the penguin as other females in the vicinity assist the evil penguin defending mother in keeping her chick.
Penguins seem to have no fear of humans, penguin costume and have approached groups of explorers without hesitation.
The evolutionary history of penguins is poorly understood, as penguin fossils are rare. The oldest known fossil cheats for club penguin penguin species are the Waimanu, which lived in the early animated penguins Paleocene epoch of New Zealand, about 62 madagascar penguins million years ago. While they were not as well adapted to penguin lesson plans aquatic life as modern penguins (which first emerged in the Eocene epoch 40 million years ago), Waimanu were fairy penguin flightless and loon-like, with short wings adapted for deep diving. These fossils prove that penguin baseball prehistoric penguins were already flightless and seagoing, so their origins probably reach baby penguin as far back as 65 million years ago, before the extinction of the dinosaurs. Penguin ancestry beyond Waimanu is king penguins not penguin facts well known, though some scientists (Mayr, 2005) think the penguin-like plotopterids (usually considered relatives penguin game of anhingas and cormorants) may actually be an early sister group of the penguins, and penguin games that penguins may have ultimately shared a common ancestor with the Pelecaniformes.
During the Late penguins birds Eocene and the Early Oligocene (40-30 MYA), some lineages of gigantic penguins existed. Nordenskjoeld's Giant antarctica penguins Penguin was the tallest, growing nearly 1.80 meters penguin gifts (6 feet) tall. The heaviest known species was with at least 80 kg the New Zealand Giant Penguin. Both were found on New cute penguins Zealand, the former also in the Antarctic.
Traditionally, most extinct species of penguins, penguin magic giant or small, have been placed in the paraphyletic sub-family called Palaeeudyptinae. evil penguins More recently, it is becoming accepted that there were hacks for club penguin at least 2 major extinct lineages, one or two closely related ones from Patagonia and at least one other penguin cafe orchestra with funny penguins pan-Antarctic and subantarctic distribution. For a complete list of these genera, see below.
(updated after Marples, 1962, and Acosta penguin club Hospitaleche, 2004)
- Family Spheniscidae
- Subfamily Palaeeudyptinae (Giant penguins, fossil)
- Nordenskjoeld's Giant Penguin, the penguins Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi
- Crossvallia (tentatively assigned to this subfamily)
- Anthropodyptes (tentatively assigned to this on the rocks penguin comic subfamily)
- Subfamily Paraptenodytinae (Patagonian stout-legged penguins, fossil)
- Subfamily Palaeospheniscinae (Patagonian slender-legged penguins, fossil)
- Subfamily Spheniscinae (modern penguins)
- King Penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus
- Emperor Penguin, Aptenodytes forsteri
- Ridgen's Penguin, penguin clothing Aptenodytes ridgeni (fossil)
- Gentoo Penguin, Pygoscelis papua
- Tyree's Penguin, Pygoscelis tyreei (fossil)
- Adelie Penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae
- Chinstrap Penguin, bud ice penguins Pygoscelis antarctica
- Pygoscelis grandis (fossil)
- ?Pygoscelis small sp. (fossil, may be different genus)
- Rockhopper Penguin, Eudyptes chrysocome
- Fiordland Penguin, penguin types Eudyptes pachyrhynchus
- Snares Penguin, Eudyptes robustus
- Royal Penguin, dancing penguins Eudyptes schlegeli
- Erect-crested Penguin, Eudyptes sclateri
- Macaroni Penguin, silly penguins Eudyptes chrysolophus
- Chatham Islands Penguin, Eudyptes sp. (prehistoric?)
- Yellow-eyed Penguin, Megadyptes antipodes
- Little Penguin (Blue or Fairy Penguin), Eudyptula minor
- White-Flippered Penguin, animated penguin Eudyptula albosignata
- Spheniscus predemersus (fossil)
- African Penguin (Jackass or Blackfooted Penguin), Spheniscus demersus
- Spheniscus chilensis (fossil)
- Spheniscus megaramphus (fossil)
- Spheniscus urbinai (fossil)
- Magellanic Penguin, funny penguin Spheniscus magellanicus
- Humboldt Penguin, Spheniscus humboldti
- Galápagos Penguin, smack the penguin Spheniscus mendiculus
- Not asssigned to a subfamily (all fossil)
Penguins are superbly adapted penguin cartoon to an aquatic life. Their wings have become flippers, useless for flight penguin wallpaper in the air. In the water, however, penguins are astonishingly agile. Within the smooth plumage a penguins pictures layer of air is preserved, ensuring buoyancy. The air layer also helps insulate penguin tattoos the birds in cold waters. On land, penguins use their tails and wings to maintain balance for adelie penguins their upright stance.
All penguins penguin graphics have a white underside and a dark (mostly black) upperside. This is for camouflage. A predator looking up from below (such as an orca or a flying penguins leopard seal) has difficulty distinguishing between a club penguin hacks white penguin belly and the reflective water surface. penguin coloring pages The dark plumage on their backs camouflages them from above.
Diving penguins reach 6 penguin variety to 12 km/h (3.7 to 7.5 mph), though there are reports of velocities of 27 km/h (17 mph) (which are more realistic penguins named after pasta in the case of startled flight). The small penguins adelie penguin do not usually dive deep; they catch their prey near the surface in dives that macaroni penguin normally last only one penguin video clips or two minutes. Larger penguins can dive deep in case of need. Dives of the large Emperor Penguin glass penguin have been recorded which reach a depth of 565 m (1870 ft) and last up to free penguin clipart 20 minutes.
Penguins either waddle on their feet or slide on their bellies across the snow, a penguin bed sheets movement called "tobogganing", which allows them to conserve energy and move relatively fast at the penguin costumes same time.
Penguins have an excellent sense of chilly willy the penguin hearing. Their eyes are adapted for underwater vision, and are their primary means of locating prey and avoiding predators; penguins comedy club in air, conversely, they are nearsighted. Their stupid penguins sense of smell has not been researched so far.
They are able to drink salt water safely because their supraorbital there's no penguins in alaska gland filters batman penguin excess salt from the bloodstream.    The opus the penguin salt is excreted in a concentrated fluid from the nasal passages.
Some penguins mate for life, while others penguin photos for just one season. be my penguin They generally raise a small brood, and the parents cooperate in caring for the clutch and for the young.
Male bonding behaviour
In early February 2004 the New York Times reported a male pair of Chinstrap types of penguins penguins in the Central Park Zoo in funny penguin pictures New York City were partnered and even successfully macaroni penguins hatched a female chick from an egg. Other penguins in New York have also been reported to be forming same-sex pairs.
This was the penguin bedding basis for the children's picture book And Tango Makes Three. The christmas penguin couple about whom the book facts about penguins was based, Roy and Silo, would see further interesting developments in their relationship when in rockhopper penguin September 2005, Silo left Roy for a female penguin, only flying penguin to come back to Roy in a few weeks.
Zoos in Japan and Germany have also documented male penguin couples. The couples african penguin have been shown to build nests cute penguin together and use a stone to replace an egg penguin clipart in the nest. Researchers at Rikkyo University in Tokyo, found twenty such pairs at sixteen major aquariums and chinstrap penguin zoos in Japan. Bremerhaven Zoo in Germany attempted to break up the male couples farce of the penguins by importing female penguins from Sweden and separating the penguin publishing male couples; they were unsuccessful. The zoo director stated the relationships were too penguin animation strong between the couples.
Penguin is thought by some theres no penguins in alaska to derive from the Welsh words pen (head) and gwyn (white), applied to the Great Auk, which had a conspicuous white patch between the bill and al gore's penguin army the eye (although linux penguins its head was black), or from an island off Newfoundland known as "White Head" due to shadow penguin a large white rock. This may be, however, a false etymology created by Dr angry penguin John Dee in his book on Prince bud ice penguin Madoc of Wales, supposedly one of the discoverers of America. By this Dee hoped to cement Queen fairy penguins Elizabeth I's claim, as a Tudor, to the New penguin crafts World. Penguins live nowhere near Newfoundland, nor do they generally have white the pebble and the penguin heads, however Great Auks did look remarkably like penguins. According to another theory, the original name was pen-wing, with reference to the rudimentary wings of both dancing penguin linux penguin gallery Great Auks and penguins. A third theory is that penguin comes from the Latin pinguis (fat). mr. popper's penguins This has added credibility because in two other Germanic languages, Dutch 'pinguïn' penguin clip art and German, 'Pinguin' both have the 'i' vowel too. While it has been replaced by an 'e' in the English spelling, it can penguin icons still be heard. By simply looking at penguin love the word's pronunciation and comparing that to the Dutch and German words, one could assume a common Latin free membership of club penguin root - after the first Germanic sound shift (500-200 BC) that makes little blue penguins a PIE 'p' into a 'f', of course. However, a Welsh 'i' is often mutated penguin pics to an 'e' in the English language so the Welsh origin is still cartoon penguin wallpaper arguable..
Penguins in popular culture
Penguins are penguin drawings popular around the world primarily for penguin party favors their unusually upright, waddling pace and (compared to other birds) lack of penguin shot glass fear towards humans. Their striking black and white plumage is often likened to a tuxedo suit and generates humorous remarks about the bird penguin shower curtain being "well dressed".
Perhaps in little blue penguin reaction to this cutesy stereotype, fictional penguins are occasionally presented as grouchy or even sinister. The popular Sanrio penguin bowling character Badtz Maru is an example, being cute yet somewhat surly. One of the best known penguins in childrens' penguin cake decorations TV is Pingu, characterised by his red penguin standing cut out scarf and bundle on a stick yellow eyed penguins over his shoulder. The 1960s television cartoon character Tennessee Tuxedo would often escape the confines of emperor penguin predators his zoo with his partner, Chumley the walrus. Also, the webcomic Fluble features an enormous penguin conspiracy run by numerous penguin classics diabolical, if often inept, penguin halloween costume penguins. In the children's movie Madagascar, the penguins are cast as spies. In the animated penguin jokes series "Wallace and Gromit" a penguin called Feathers McGraw disguises penguin magic explanation himself as a chicken with a red rubber glove.In the animated "Toy Story 2" a rubber penguin named Wheezy also featured-and penguin patterns once again was a sweet and friendly character. Penguins are often portrayed as friendly and penguin video smart as well. Another the penguin example is in the anime Neon Genesis Evangelion, which features a warm-water bloody penguin game hot springs penguin named Pen Pen. Tux the penguin is the official mascot for Linux. Also, in Avatar: The Last Airbender, a popular sport penguin publishing house is penguin sledding, which penguin tableware is catching a penguin and using it like a tobbogan. There was also a film that came out in 1988 called "Scamper The Penguin," penguin toy directed by G.A. Sokoljishij and Jim Terry, featuring Virginia Masters, David Miles penguin webquest Monson, and others as the voices of albino penguin the animated characters who execute an elaborate escape plan. crystal penguin There is also the classic Woody the Woodpecker show, with Chilly Willy.
The Penguin is also the name of a villain in duo-therm penguin the comic series Batman and its TV show and movie spinoffs, and is usually seen emperor penguin pictures wearing a tuxedo type outfit in order to fit the name.
Opus, a character from funny penguin clips the Comic strips Bloom County, Outland, and infant penguin costume Opus was a popular penguin from the 80's on, typically seen with a rather un-penguinlike nose.
Penguins also john duff penguin appear regularly in Steve Bell's "If" comic strip in England's Guardian newspaper, wherein they little penguin tend to be somewhat mr. poppers and the penguins lessons anarchic and poorly behaved (by human standards).
The documentary March of the Penguins (2005) details a year penguin chicks in the life of a colony of penguin group Emperor Penguins mating, giving birth, and hunting for food in the harsh continent of Antarctica. It won the penguin shoot 2005 Academy Award for Documentary Feature.
The old Budweiser ice commercials starred a penguin software anti virus Penguin, with the catchphrase "Doo bee doobee dooo," signaling his pittsburg penguins arrival, and the eventual stealing of the Bud ice. 
Penguins and polar bears
Despite what commercials and other sources may show, the pittsburgh penguins schedule likelihood of a meeting will you be my penguin between a penguin and a polar bear without human intervention is vanishingly small. This is because the two bud ice penguin commercial species are found on clip art penguins opposite hemispheres. Polar bears inhabit the northern hemisphere, while penguins mainly inhabit the southern hemisphere. This is a misconception that fighting penguins is fueled by popular culture such as movies and television. A lethal penguin prominent example of this takes place in a holiday linux penguin logo 2005 ad campaign by Coca-Cola featuring the partying penguins and the polar bears watching from afar.
The "penguin" is also a penguin backgrounds juggling trick where you catch each ball by penguin cam rotating your wrist to face the outside of the pattern, followed by rotating your wrist back to penguin glass the middle (inside) of the pattern to throw it again. penguin myspace layouts Many examples of this trick can be found on video sites on the penguin varieties internet.
- Live Penguin Webcam
- Penguin information on 70South
- Gentoo penguin webcam from the Antarctic
- Information about penguins pittsburgh penguins merchandise at pinguins.info
- PBS Nature: The World of Penguins
- Integrated Taxonomic emporer penguin Information System
- Seaworld Penguin Information
- Penguin Weblog
- Pictures Penguins
- Penguin Videos on the Internet Bird Collection
- Penguin World
- ^ Animal fight club penguin Fact Sheets. Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
- ^ Humboldt Penguin :: Saint Louis Zoo. Retrieved on i rub my penguin 2006-07-21.
- ^ African Penguins and Penguins penguin activities for students of the World. Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
- ^ Columbia News Service: June 10, penguin card holder 2002: They're in love. They're gay. They're penguins... And they're not alone.. Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
- ^ 365gay.com: Gay Penguins Resist 'Aversion Therapy'. Retrieved penguin coloring page on penguin craft 2006-07-21.
- ^ Bud Ice ad on YouTube. Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
- Acosta Hospitaleche, Carolina (2004): penguin information Los pingüinos (Aves, Sphenisciformes) fósiles de Patagonia. Sistemática, biogeografía y evolución. Doctoral thesis, Department of Natural Sciences and Museum, Universidad Nacional de La Plata. La penguin publishers Plata, Argentina. [in Spanish] PDF fulltext
- Davis; Lloyd S.; penguin tattoo Renner; M. (1995). Penguins . London: T & A D Poyser. ISBN 0-7136-6550-5.
- Marples, B. J. (1962): Observations secrets of club penguin on the history of penguins. In: Leeper, G. W. (ed.), The evolution antarctic penguins of living organisms. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press: 408-416.
- Mayr, G. (2005): Tertiary plotopterids (Aves, Plotopteridae) chiodos theres no penguins in alaska and a novel hypothesis on the club penguin cheat codes phylogenetic relationships of penguins (Spheniscidae). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 43(1): 61-71. DOI:doi:10.1111/j.1439-0469.2004.00291.x PDF fulltext
- Williams; Tony D. (1995). club penguin forums The Penguins - Spheniscidae . duo-therm penguin rv air conditioner troubleshooting guide Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854667-X.
Adelie penguin funny penguin videos in Antarctica
Chinstrap Penguin killer penguins hunting for krill
Humboldt Penguin and eggs
Little Penguin - also called "Fairy Penguin"
Gentoo Penguin at polish club penguin hack codes Arctowski base
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