- For the drug referred to as "pigment," see black tar heroin.
Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form.
Synthetic Ultramarine pigment is chemically identical to authentic pigment natural ultramarine.
A pigment is a material pigments that changes the color of light it reflects as the result of selective color absorption. This physical perfect pigment process differs from fluorescence, phosphorescence, and other forms pigment of luminescence, in which the material itself emits light.
Many materials selectively absorb certain skin pigment wavelengths of light. Materials that humans have chosen and plant pigment chromatography developed for use as pigments usually have special properties that make them ideal for concrete pigments coloring other materials. A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials it colors. earth pigment properties It must be stable in solid form at ambient hormonal skin pigment changes temperatures.
For industrial applications, as well as in the arts, permanence and stabililty are desirable properties. Pigments color pigment that are not permanent are called fugitive. Fugitive pigments fade over time, sweatshirt, pigment - dyed or with exposure to light, while plastic pigment some eventually blacken.
Pigments are used for coloring paint, ink, plastic, fabric, cosmetics, food and other materials. Most pigments used quartz pigments in manufacturing and the visual arts are dry plant pigments as natural food colorants colorants, usually ground into a fine powder. This powder is added to everlast pigment dyed sleeveless t-shirt mens a vehicle (or matrix), a relatively neutral or colorless material that acts as loss of skin pigment a binder.
A distinction is usually plant pigments made between a pigment, which is insoluble in the vehicle, and a food pigments plant stores structure that dye, which is either a liquid, or is soluble in its vehicle. A colorant can be both a pigment pearl-ex pigment powder and a dye depending on the vehicle it is used in. pigments used in offset printing ink In some cases, a pigment can be manufactured from a dye by precipitating photoluminescent pigments a soluble dye with a metallic salt. The resulting pigment is called plant pigments natural food colorants a lake pigment.
- 1 Biological pigments
- 2 History yellow cell pigment biology of pigments
- 2.1 Development of synthetic pigments
- 2.2 New dyes and pigments sources for historic pigments
- 3 Manufacturing natural pigments and industrial red pigment in flower standards
- 4 Physical basis behind pigments
- 5 Scientific and technical issues
- 6 Pigment groups
- 7 Swatches
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External organic pigment expert silver pigments links
The monarch butterfly's distinctive pigmentation reminds potential is vivera ink dye or pigment predators that it is poisonous.
In biology, a pigment is paper chromatography plant photo pigment any material resulting in color pigment dyed of plant or animal cells. Many biological structures, such as skin, eyes, fur and hair pigments in a tree contain pigments (such as melanin) in specialized cells called epson photo printer archival pigment large format chromatophores. Many conditions affect the levels or nature of pigments in plant and animal cells. For instance, Albinism is fiberglass pigment a disorder affecting the level of melanin production in animals.
Pigment color organic dry pigments manufacturer differs from structual color in that it is the same for all plastics pigment or color viewing angles, whereas structural color is the result of selective carbon pigment print reflection or iridescence, usually because of multilayer structures. dyes and pigments in the environment For example, butterfly wings typically contain structural color, although many butterflies have cells that contain pigment as ingredents for making tattoo inks and pigments well.
History of pigments
An anonymous prehistoric cave painter used naturally occurring ochres, oxides of iron laser hair removal pigment discoloration and charred wood or bone to depict paleolithic fauna at loss of pigment Lascaux, France.
Naturally occurring pigments such as paint pigment ochres and iron oxides have been used as colorants since prehistoric times. Archaeologists have uncovered seaweed, nose pigment evidence that early humans used paint for aesthetic purposes such as body separating plant pigments decoration. Pigments and paint grinding equipment believed to be between 350,000 and victorian paint pigments 400,000 years old have been reported in a cave at Twin Rivers, near Lusaka, Zambia.
Before the carotene pigment Industrial Revolution, the range of color available for art and decorative uses was technically limited. Most of elementis pigments the pigments in use were earth and mineral pigments, or pigments get powder pigments for concrete counter tops of biological origin. green pigment that traps light energy from the sun Pigments from unusual sources such as botanical materials, animal waste, insects, and mollusks were harvested and traded over niche new generation high performance pigments india long distances. Some colors were costly or impossible to mix with the range of pigments pigment formulas that were available. Blue and purple came to be associated with royalty because pigment importers of their expense.
Biological pigments pigment ink pens were often difficult to acquire, and the details of their production were kept secret by the manufacturers. Tyrian Purple pigment manufacturers uk is a pigment made from the mucus of one of pigments concrete several species of Murex satin white pigment snail. Production of Tyrian Purple for use as a fabric dye began as early as 1200 BCE by the Phoenicians, and was wayne pigments continued by the Greeks and Romans until 1453 acid free transparent film for pigment ink printing CE, with the fall of Constantinople. The pigment was expensive and complex amino acid pigments to produce, and items colored with it became associated with power aqueous pigment dispersion improvement and wealth. Greek historian Theopompus, writing in the 4th century BCE, reported that "purple azure pigment for dyes fetched its blue mountain pigments weight in silver at Colophon [in Asia Minor]."
Mineral pigments were also traded over long distances. The only way color pigments in crayola crayons to achieve a deep rich blue was by concrete colouring pigments using a semi-precious stone, lapis lazuli, and the best sources of lapis were remote. Flemish painter congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium Jan Van Eyck, working in the 15th coral fluorescent pigment century, did not ordinarily include blue in distributor dye pigment wholesaler his paintings. To have one's portrait commissioned and painted with blue was leaves and experiment with pigment color considered a great luxury. If a patron wanted blue, they were forced to pay extra. When Van Eyck used lapis, he never blended it losing pigment in the skin with other colors. Instead he mac pigments applied it in pure form, almost as a decorative glaze.
Miracle of the Slave
by Tintoretto (c. pigments for printing ink 1548). The son of a master dyer, Tintoretto used Carmine Red red tree pigments Lake pigment, derived from the cochineal insect, to achieve dramatic color effects.
Spain's conquest of a New World empire in retinal pigment epitherial atrophy the 16th century introduced new pigments and colors to rockwood pigments peoples on both sides of the Atlantic. Carmine, a dye and pigment toxicology of pigment violet 3 derived from a parasitic insect found in Central artist pigments and South America, attained great status and value in Europe. Produced from harvested, dried, and authentic pigment shirts crushed cochineal insects, Carmine could be used in fabric dye, body brightness of pigments paint, or in its solid lake form, almost any kind of paint colorlife paper and pigment printers or cosmetic.
Natives of Peru had been producing cochineal dyes coloured magnetic pigments for textiles since at least 700 CE, but Europeans had never enhancement of pigment seen the color before. When the Spanish invaded the Aztec empire in what is global pigment market tons green now Mexico, they were quick to exploit the color for new trade opportunities. home remedies for lighter skin pigment Carmine became the region's second most valuable export how to get powder pigments for concrete counter tops next to silver. Pigments produced from the cochineal insect gave the Catholic iron oxide pigments cardinals their vibrant robes and the English "Redcoats" their distinctive uniforms. The true source of the pigment, an leaf pigment insect, was kept secret natural skin pigment disappears until the 18th century, when biologists discovered the source. 
Girl with a perfect pigment reviews Pearl Earring
by Johannes Vermeer (c. 1665).
While Carmine photoshop pigment was popular in Europe, blue remained an exclusive color, associated with wealth and status. The 17th pigment brown century Dutch master Johannes Vermeer often made lavish use of pigment discolor of skin lapis lazuli. Girl with a Pearl Earring, a novel by Tracy Chevalier, pigment ink transfer paper is a fictional account of one of Vermeer's most famous paintings. pigments for paints india In Chevalier's novel, and in the skin pigments film based upon it, the artist uses lapis to paint the headscarf on a young servant girl. thermochromic pigment Vermeer (played by Colin Firth in ultra-cool pigment system the film version) admonishes the servant girl Griet (played by Scarlett Johansson) to keep yellow pigments this secret from his wife, knowing that his wife will be jealous.
Development of 194 yellow pigment synthetic pigments
The Industrial and Scientific amino acid pigment classifications Revolutions brought a huge expansion in the range of synthetic pigments, pigments that are manufactured or refined from naturally authentic pigment dyed sweatshirt occurring materials, available both for manufacturing and biomedic pigment peel plus artistic expression. Because of the expense of lapis lazuli, much effort went into finding a less checking for lead pigment costly blue pigment.
Prussian Blue was the child patchy skin pigment first synthetic pigment, discovered by accident in 1704. By the early 19th century, color and pigments synthetic and metallic blue pigments had been added to the range of blues, including color revolution pure pigment make up French Ultramarine, a synthetic form of lapis lazuli, and the various forms of Cobalt and Cerulean Blue. In colored concrete pigment the early 20th century, organic chemistry added Phthalo Blue, a colour pigment in paint synthetic, organic pigment with cosmetic mac pigment overwhelming tinting power.
Discoveries in color science created new industries and drove changes in fashion and taste. The day glow pigments discovery in 1856 of mauveine, the first aniline dye, dieatated cable ties with metallic pigment was a forerunner for the development of hundreds of synthetic dyes and pigments. Mauveine earth pigment was discovered by an 18-year-old chemist named William Henry Perkin, who went on to exploit his discovery in edible pigments industry and become wealthy. His success attracted a generation of followers, as emd pigments young scientists fibreglass pigment went into organic chemistry to pursue riches. Within a few years, chemists had synthesized fresco pigments a substitute for madder in the production of Alizarin Crimson. By genuine pigment dyed ringer the closing decades of the 19th century, textiles, paints, and other commodities in colors such as red, crimson, blue, and purple had hair pigment become affordable.
by lightfast acrylic paint pigments Paul Cézanne. Working in the late 19th century, Cezanne had a palette of colors that earlier generations newborn skin pigment of artists could only dream of.
Development of chemical pigments and nose skin - loss of pigment dyes helped bring new industrial prosperity to Germany and other countries in northern Europe, but it brought dissolution and oil paint pigments decline elsewhere. In Spain's pigment changes in face former New World empire, the production of cochineal colors employed thousands of low-paid workers. The Spanish monopoly on cochineal production had been pigment clear light acne treatment worth a fortune until the early 1800's, when the Mexican War of pigment dispersions Independence and other market changes disrupted production. Organic pigment dyes for candles chemistry delivered pigment types the final blow for the cochineal color industry. When chemists created inexpensive substitutes for pigments exporters india Carmine, an industry and a way of life went into steep decline.
New sources for historic pigments
by Johannes Vermeer (c. 1658). Vermeer was lavish in his choice of expensive pigments, including Indian Yellow, pigments glow in the dark from ohio cincinatti lapis lazuli, and Carmine, as shown in this pigments in the lens of the eye vibrant painting.
Before the Industrial Revolution, many pigments were known by the location where they were pigments intermediates india produced. Pigments based on minerals and clays often bore the name of the city premier pigments or region where they were mined. Raw Sienna and Burnt printing ink pigment price increase Sienna came from reflective pigments Sienna, Italy, while Raw Umber and Burnt Umber came from Umbria. These pigments were among the easiest to synthesize, and spinach pigments chemists created modern colors based on the originals stabilization of organic pigments of commercial value that were more consistent than colors mined from transfer paper pigment inks the original ore bodies. But the place names remained.
Historically and culturally, many uv stable florescent pigments famous natural pigments have been replaced with synthetic pigments, while retaining historic names. In some cases the original color what are pigments name has shifted in meaning, as a historic name has yellow pigment been applied to a popular modern color. By convention, a contemporary mixture of pigments that replaces a historical acid free transparent film pigment ink printing pigment is indicated by calling the alkali blue pigment resulting color a hue, but manufacturers are not always careful in maintaining art supply powder pigment this distinction. The following examples illustrate the shifting atelier chromatic pigment home nature of historic pigment names:
Titian used the historic pigment Vermilion to authentic pigment 1/4 zip hooded sweatshirt create the reds in the great fresco of bacteria extraction pigment Assunta, completed c. 1518.
- Indian Yellow was once produced by collecting the urine of cattle that had bayer pigments been fed only mango leaves. Dutch and Flemish painters of the 17th cathay pigments and 18th centuries favored it for its luminescent qualities, and often used it to cause for loss of skin pigment represent sunlight. In Girl with a Pearl Earring, Vermeer's patron remarks that Vermeer ceramic pigment used "cow piss" to paint his chrome in pigments wife. Since mango leaves are nutritionally inadequate for cattle, the practice of harvesting Indian Yellow was eventually declared to color pigments be inhumane. Modern Indian Yellow Hue is a mixture of synthetic color pigments for concrete counters pigments.
- Ultramarine, originally the semi-precious stone lapis colored pigments for ready mix concrete lazuli, has been replaced by an inexpensive modern synthetic pigment manufactured from aluminum silicate with sulfur concrete gray pigment impurities. At the same time, Royal Blue, another name once given to tints produced from contains the green pigment chlorophyll lapis lazuli, has evolved to signify a much createx pure pigments lighter and brighter color, degussa pigments and is usually mixed from Phthalo Blue and titanium dioxide, or from inexpensive dr. ph. pigment synthetic blue dyes. Since synthetic Ultramarine is chemically identical with lapis lazuli, the "hue" designation is not dry pigment consultants used. French Blue, yet another historic name for Ultramarine, was adopted by the textile dry skin loss of pigment child and apparel industry as a color name in the 1990s, and was applied to a dry watercolor pigment shade of blue that has nothing in dyes & pigments india common with the historic pigment French Ultramarine.
- Vermilion, a toxic mercury compound favored dyes and pigments usage for its deep red-orange color by old master painters such as Titian, has been replaced by convenience mixtures elemental composition of lead chromate pigment of synthetic, inorganic eye pigment epithelium pigments. Although genuine Vermilion paint can still be purchased for fine arts and art conservation applications, few manufacturers make it, because fiberglass pigment ontario canada of fiberglass pigments legal liability issues. Few artists buy it, because it has been superceded by modern pigments that fibreglass pigment ontario canada are both less expensive and less toxic, as well as less reactive with other pigments. how ph affect carotenoid pigments As a result, genuine Vermilion is almost unavailable. Modern vermilion colors kremer pigments are properly designated as Vermilion Hue to distinguish them laquer pigments from genuine Vermilion.
Manufacturing and industrial standards
Before the lead chromate pigment development of synthetic pigments, and the refinement of techniques for extracting mineral mac pigment pigments, batches of color were often inconsistent. With the development of a modern color industry, manufacturers and professionals mineral pigments corp have cooperated to create international standards for identifying, producing, measuring, and testing colors.
First published moraxella lacunata pigment on agar in 1905, the Munsell Color System became the foundation natural pigment dispersant skin for a series of color models, providing objective p33 pigment methods for the measurement of color. The Munsell system describes a color in three dimensions, palm tech/dry pigments hue, value (or lightness), and chroma, where chroma is the parsley pigments difference from gray at a given hue and value.
By the pefect pigment middle years of the 20th century, standardized methods for pigment chemistry were available, part of an international movement to create such standards permanent pigments copal in industry. The International phaze 13 pigment gel Organization for Standardization (ISO) develops technical standards for the manufacture of pigments and dyes. ISO standards define various industrial and chemical phosphorescent pigment properties, and how to pigment / binder calculation test for them. The principal ISO standards that relate to all pigments are as follows:
- ISO-787 General methods of test for pigment and mole removal pigments and extenders
- ISO-8780 Methods of dispersion for assessment of dispersion characteristics
Other ISO pigment disorders standards pertain to particular classes or categories of pigments, based on their pigment dispersion syndrome pigment dispersions uk chemical composition, such as ultramarine pigments, titanium dioxide, iron oxide pigments, and pigment dyes for overdipping candles so forth.
Many manufacturers of paints, inks, textiles, plastics, and colors have voluntarily adopted the Colour Index International (CII) pigment in cat iris as a standard for identifying the pigments that they use in manufacturing particular colors. First pigment intermediates india published in 1925, and now published jointly on the web by the Society of Dyers pigment of black babies and Colourists (United Kingdom) and the American Association of Textile Chemists and pigment of imagination tattoos Colorists (USA), pigment of your imagination this index is recognized internationally as the authoritative reference on colorants. It encompasses more than 27,000 products under more than 13,000 pigment photo printer generic color index pigment photo printer epson names.
In the CII schema, each pigment has a generic index number that pigment polucje nocne mp3 identifies it chemically, regardless of proprietary and historic names. For pigment violet 23 india example, Phthalo Blue has been known by a variety of generic and proprietary names since its discovery in the pigment yellow 110 india 1930s. In much of Europe, phthalocyanine blue is better known as Helio Blue, or by pigments emulsions india a proprietary name such as Winsor Blue. An American pigments for carpets paint manufacturer, Grumbacher, registered an alternate spelling (Thalo Blue) as a trademark. Colour Index International resolves all pigments in plants these conflicting historic, generic, and proprietary names so that manufacturers and pigments in spinach consumers can identify the pigment (or dye) used in a plant pigment particular color product. In the CII, all Phthalo Blue pigments powder pigment are designated by a generic colour index number as either PB15 or PB36, rockwood pigment short for pigment blue 15 and skin pigment diseases pigment blue 36. (The two forms of Phthalo Blue, PB15 and PB36, reflect slight variations in molecular structure that spectral sensitivity of macular pigment produce a slightly more stainless steel paint 316l pigment greenish or reddish blue.)
Physical basis behind pigments
Pigments appear the colors they are because they selectively tips working with interference pigments reflect and absorb certain wavelengths of light. White light is a roughly equal mixture of the entire vampire pigment visible spectrum of light. When this light encounters a pigment, some wavelengths are viridian pigment absorbed by the chemicals of the pigment, and others akita pigment are reflected. This new spectrum creates the appearance of a color. Ultramarine reflects blue aluminium pigments compatibility with short oil alkyds light, and absorbs other animated pictures of pigments colors, for instance. Pigments, unlike fluorescent or phosphorescent substances, can only subtract wavelengths from the source light, never ap bio plant pigments and photosynthesis chromatography add new ones.
A wide variety of arsenic pigment wavelengths (colors) encounter a pigment. asuhi pigment This pigment absorbs red and green light, but reflects blue, creating the color blue.
Sunlight encounters Rosco R80 "Primary Blue" pigment. The source spectrum, minus basf color pigment for paint manufacturing ky the absorbency spectrum of the pigment, results in the final spectrum, benjamin moore pigment epoxy and the appearance of blue.
The appearance bidirectional pigment granule migration of pigments is intimately connected to the color of the source light. Sunlight has a high binder pigment priniting color temperature, and a fairly uniform spectrum, and is considered a standard bird with pigment in feathers for white light. Artificial light sources tend to have great peaks bird with pigment in feathers africa in some parts of their spectrum, and deep valleys in others. Viewed body pigment under these conditions, pigments will appear different colors.
Color spaces used to represent colors numerically must specify bulk artists pigments their light source. Lab color measurements, unless otherwise noted, assume cadmium pigment msds that the measurement was taken under a D65 light source, or cadmium pigments msds "Daylight 6500K", which is roughly the color temperature of sunlight.
Other properties cappella pigments belgium of a color, such as its saturation or lightness, may be carnelian pigment determined by the other substances that accompany pigments. Binders cement pigment or cement colorant and fillers added to pure pigment chemicals also have their own reflection and absorbtion christina cosmetics perfect pigment reviews patterns, which can affect the final spectrum. Likewise, in pigment/binder mixtures, individual color box classic pigment cat's eyes rays of light may not encounter colorbox classic pigment cat's eyes pigment molecules, and may be reflected as is. These stray rays of source concrete pigment light contribute to the saturation of the color. Pure pigment allows very concrete pigment for garden ornaments little white light to escape, producing a highly saturated color. A small quantity cultured marble and pigment of pigment mixed with a lot of white binder, however, will appear desaturated and pale, due to the high quantity drum dryer organic pigment of escaping white light.
Scientific and technical issues
Selection of a pigment for a particular application is determined by cost, and by earth pigments the physical properties and attributes of the pigment itself. For example, a pigment effect of ph towards pigment anthocyanins and chlorophyll that is used to color effect of soil moisture on photosynthetic pigments glass must have very high heat stability in order to survive the manufacturing process; but, elementus pigments suspended in the glass vehicle, its resistance to alkali or acidic materials is not enclosure pigment an issue. In artistic paint, heat stability is less important, epson r300 pigment ink while lightfastness and toxicity are greater concerns.
The following everlast pigment dye are some of the attributes of pigments that determine their suitability for particular manufacturing processes everlast shorts in pigment dye colors and applications:
- Heat stability
- Tinting strength
- Opacity or transparancy
- Resistance to alkalis and acids
- Reactions and interactions between pigments
- Biological origins: experiment with red pigments in fall leaves Alizarin, Alizarin Crimson, Gamboge, Indigo, Indian Yellow, Cochineal Red, Tyrian Purple
- Carbon pigments: eye damage to the pigment layer in the laser-exposed regions Carbon Black, Ivory Black, fang liao pigment corals Vine Black, Lamp Black
- Cadmium pigments: cadmium pigments, Cadmium Green, Cadmium Red, Cadmium Yellow, Cadmium Orange
- Iron oxide fd&c pigments pigments: Caput Mortuum, oxide red, Red Ochre, Sanguine, Venetian fiber giast color pigment msds Red, Mars Black
- Chromium pigments: Chrome Green, Chrome Yellow
- Cobalt pigments: Cobalt Blue, Cerulean Blue, Cobalt Violet, Aureolin
- Lead pigments: lead white, Naples yellow, florescent pigment Cremnitz flourescent pigments White, red lead
- Copper pigments: Paris Green, Verdigris, Viridian
- Titanium pigments: Titanium White, Titanium Beige
- Ultramarine pigments: Ultramarine, Ultramarine Green Shade, French Ultramarine
- Mercury pigments: Vermilion
- Zinc pigments: formulating pigment / binder calculation Zinc White
- Clay earth pigments (which are also iron gel coat pigment oxides): Raw Sienna, Burnt glaze pigment Sienna, Raw Umber, Burnt Umber, Yellow Ochre.
- Organic: Pigment Red 170, Phthalo Green, Phthalo Blue, Prussian blue, Quinacridone Magenta.
Pure pigments green pigment broccoli chloroplasts reflect light in a very specific way harcross pigments that cannot be precisely duplicated by the discrete light emitters in a computer display. However, herbs alter skin pigment by making careful measurements of pigments, close high pigment makeup approximations can be made. The Munsell Color System provides a good conceptual explanation of what is missing. Munsell high temperature pigment devised a system that provides how do plant pigments capture light energy an objective measure of color in three dimensions: hue, value (or lightness), and chroma. Computer displays in general are industrial manufacture of paints and pigments unable to show the true chroma of many pigments, but the hue inorganic pigment and lightness can be reproduced with iron oxide concrete pigment supplier relative accuracy. However, when the gamma of a computer display deviates from the reference value, the hue is also systematically japan colors and other pigments biased.
The following approximations assume a display device at gamma 2.2, using the sRGB journal of dyes and pigments color lamp black concrete pigment space. The further a display device deviates from these standards, the less laser treatment for pigment dispersion syndrome accurate these swatches will be. Swatches are based on the average measurements of several lots of single-pigment leaf pigments watercolor paints, converted from lab color space to sRGB color space for viewing on lexmark pigment ink a computer display. Different brands loss of pigment child skin and lots of the same pigment may vary in color.
PB29 - #003BAF
PB27 - #0B3E66
PR106 - #E34234
PBr7 - #CE7D35
- ^ Kassinger, Ruth G. (2003-02-06). Dyes: From Sea Snails to Synthetics. 21st Century. ISBN paper chromatogaphy of plant pigment 0-7613-2112-8.
- ^ Theopompus, cited by Athenaeus [12.526] in c. 200 BCE; paper chromatography and red pigments in leaves according to Gulick, Charles Barton. (1941). Athenaeus, The Deipnosophists. Cambridge: perfect pigment makeup, reviews, forums Harvard University Press.
- ^ Michel Pastoureau (2001-10-01). Blue: The History of a Color. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09050-5.
- ^ Jan Wouters, Noemi Rosario-Chirinos photosynthesis pigment lab introduction (1992). "Dye Analysis of Pre-Columbian Peruvian Textiles with High-Performance Liquid pigment blue in plastic Chromatography and Diode-Array pigment cell Detection". Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 31 (2): 237-255.
- ^ Amy Butler Greenfield (2005-04-26). pigment dyed garment suppliers A Perfect Red: Empire, Espionage, and the Quest for the Color of Desire. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-052275-5.
- ^ Chevalier, Tracy. (2001-01-08). Girl with a Pearl Earring. Plume. pigment dyed vs. garment dyed ISBN 0-452-28215-2.
- ^ Simon Garfield (2000). Mauve: How One Man pigment for cement Invented a Color That Changed the pigment in face World. Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-393-02005-3.
- ^ Octavio Hernández. Cochineal. Mexico Desconocido Online. Retrieved on July 15, 2005.
- ^ Jeff pigment in plants Behan. The bug that changed pigment index number history. Retrieved on June 26, 2006.
- ^ Dictionary of Color Terms. pigment ink Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
- Ball, Philip (2002), Bright Earth: Art pigment lady and the Invention of Color, Farrar, Straus pigment light color wheel and Giroux, ISBN 0-374-11679-2
- Doerner, Max (1984), The Materials of the Artist and Their Use in Painting: pigment manufacturing process equipment With Notes on the Techniques of the Old pigment oil wetting agents Masters, Revised Edition., Harcourt, ISBN 0-15-657716-X
- Finlay, Victoria (2003), Color: A Natural History of the Palette, Random House, ISBN 0-8129-7142-6
- Gage, John (1999), Color and Culture: Practice and Meaning from Antiquity to Abstraction, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-22225-3
- Meyer, Ralph (1991), The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques, Fifth Edition, Viking, ISBN 0-670-83701-6
- Pigments through the ages
- Earliest evidence of art found
- Sinopia A commercial website offering technical information for fine artists on the use of pigments, including recipes for oil, casein, tempera, and encaustic paints.
- handprint: watercolors A personal, non-commercial website by a watercolor artist that describes watercolor painting techniques and examines and reviews hundreds of pigments and their properties.