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biodiesel
Workshop on biodiesel in Chiang Mai 

The Nation - 2 hours, 41 minutes ago
Chiang Mai - The Energy Management and Conservation Centre (Emac) at Chiang Mai University is spearheading efforts to train community leaders to take advantage of the cost and environment benefits of biodiesel.

boric acid
Nothing says eeew like cockroaches in a house 
The Morning Call - Oct 08 1:09 AM
The German variety loves the food and moisture of a home. | Jennifer Davidson, a Muscogee County, Ga., extension agent, is quick to call cockroaches her ''mortal enemy.''

chemists
Advertisement not meant to malign trade or industry: Medicine Shoppe 
PharmaBiz - Oct 08 8:46 PM
The radio advertisement campaign of Medicine Shoppe, which prompted the Pharmaceutical Wholesalers Association (PWA) to stop drug supplies to its company stores in Mumbai, does not contain anything objectionable to any of the chemists, says Medicine Shoppe.

diesel fuel
Venezuela ships Nicaragua diesel in show of support 
Reuters via Yahoo! News - Oct 07 7:05 PM
Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez sent Nicaragua a shipment of cut-price diesel fuel on Saturday in a demonstration of his support for Nicaragua's leftist opposition leader, Daniel Ortega, before a November 5 presidential election.

hydrogen peroxide
BASF, Dow, Solvay Partnership Breaks New Ground With Innovative HPPO Technology 
PlasticsNet - Oct 06 9:31 AM
BASF Aktiengesellschaft The Dow Chemical Company launched a long-term venture to produce propylene oxide at the world's first commercial-scale hydrogen peroxide propylene oxide plant at BASF's site in Antwerp, Belgium

zinc
Still Like Copper, Nickel, Zinc? Buy an LME Membership Instead 
Bloomberg.com - Oct 08 10:29 PM
Oct. 9 (Bloomberg) -- The London Metal Exchange, the biggest marketplace for trading aluminum, copper, nickel and zinc, is a better investment than any of those commodities.

mercury
Pre-Merger Housecleaning at Mercury Interactive 
SeekingAlpha via Yahoo! Finance - Oct 07 11:10 PM
Michelle Leder reported on Footnoted.org: Last week, Mercury Interactive announced that it had proposed a $35 million settlement with the SEC over stock option issues and a formal investigation.

polymer clay
A whole world in her hands 
The Arizona Republic - Oct 08 1:56 AM
Cheri DeGruccio makes dolls. But not just any dolls. She makes tiny dolls. Make that teeny dolls. Actually they are teeny-tiny dolls.

porcelain
Britain: 18th-Century Bishop?s Smile Goes on Display 
New York Times - Oct 07 1:51 PM
A 200-year-old set of dentures that belonged to the Archbishop of Narbonne, Arthur-Richard Dillon, who died in 1806, went on display for the first time at the Museum of London. The false teeth, made of porcelain and containing gold springs and thought to have been made by a Parisian dentist, Nicholas Dubois de Chemant, were found fitting snugly in the mouth of the French archbishop when his

urea
Reporters' Notebooks 
Agriculture Online - Oct 08 6:13 PM
The Ohio Farm Science Review, held in late-September each year near London, Ohio, has something for almost everyone to enjoy. Nearly 130,000 visitors attended the 44th Farm Science Review this year.

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Biodiesel

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Here is an article on - how to make biodiesel.

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Biodiesel
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Biodiesel refers to a diesel-equivalent, processed fuel derived biodesel from biological sources. Though derived from biological sources, it is a processed fuel that biodiezel can be readily used in diesel-engined vehicles, which distinguishes biodiesel from the straight vegetable bioiesel oils (SVO) or waste vegetable oils (WVO) biodiesl used as fuels in some modified diesel vehicles.

In this article's context, biodiesel refers to alkyl esters made from the transesterification bodiesel of bidiesel both vegetable oils and/or animal fats. Biodiesel is biodegradable and non-toxic, and has significantly fewer emissions than petroleum-based diesel when burned. Biodiesel functions in current diesel biodiessel engines, and can supplement fossil fuels bipdiesel as the world's primary transport energy source.

Biodiesel can be bioddiesel distributed using today's infrastructure, and its use and production are increasing rapidly. Fuel stations are beginning to make biodiesel available to consumers, and a history of diesel sulfur biodiesel growing number of transport fleets use it as an additive in their fuel. Biodiesel is generally more expensive to purchase than petroleum biodiesel expansion diesel but this differential may diminish making biodiesel at home due to economies of scale, the rising cost of petroleum and government tax subsidies.

Contents

  • 1 Description
  • 2 Technical how to make biodiesel standards
  • 3 Applications
    • 3.1 Usage
    • 3.2 Gelling
    • 3.3 Water biodiesel production contamination
  • 4 Availability
  • 5 Production
    • 5.1 Biodiesel biodiesel price nj feedstock
    • 5.2 Efficiency biodiesel turbine fuel kerosene and economic arguments
  • 6 Environmental benefits
  • 7 Environmental making biodiesel concerns
  • 8 Historical background
  • 9 Current biodiesel make research
    • 9.1 Algaculture
  • 10 See also
  • 11 References
    • 11.1 Notes
  • 12 External biodiesel kit biodiesel magnesol links

Description

Biodiesel is a light to dark yellow liquid. It is practically immiscible with water, has a biodiesel fuel high boiling point and low vapor pressure. Typical methyl ester biodiesel has a flash point biodiesel vacuum distillation of ~ 150 °C (302 °F), making it rather non-flammable. Biodiesel has a biodiesel grants density of ~ 0.86 g/cm³, less than that of water. biodiesel driver questionnaire Biodiesel uncontaminated with starting material can be regarded as non-toxic.

Biodiesel has a buy biodiesel products online viscosity similar to petrodiesel, the industry term phosphoric acid biodiesel esterification for diesel produced from petroleum. It can be used as an additive in formulations of diesel to increase the biodiesel equipment lubricity of pure Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel, although michigan biodiesel care must be taken to ensure that the biodiesel used does not increase biodiesel supplies the sulfur content of the mixture above 15 ppm. Much of the world national biodiesel board uses a system known as the "B" factor to biodiesel generators state the amount of biodiesel in any fuel mix, in contrast to the "BA" biodiesel economics or "E" system used for ethanol mixes. For example, fuel containing 20% biodiesel is labeled B20. Pure biodiesel is referred to biodiesel kits as B100.


Technical standards

The common international standard for biodiesel is EN 14214.

There are additional national biodiesel reactor specifications. ASTM how is biodiesel made D 6751 is the most common standard referenced in the United States. In Germany, the requirements for biodiesel is biodiesel chemicals supplies fixed in the DIN EN 14214 standard. There are standards new technology biodiesel for three different varieties of biodiesel, which are made of different oils:

  • RME (rapeseed biodiesel conversion methyl ester, according to DIN E 51606)
  • PME (vegetable methyl ester, purely vegetable products, according to DIN biodiesel process E 51606)
  • FME (fat methyl ester, vegetable and animal products, according to what is biodiesel DIN V 51606)

The standards ensure that the biodiesel fuels following important factors in the fuel production process are satisfied:

  • Complete reaction.
  • Removal of glycerin.
  • Removal of catalyst.
  • Removal of alcohol.
  • Absence of free fatty acids.
  • Low sulfur content.

Basic industrial buy retail biodiesel fuel online tests to determine whether the products conform to the standards typically include gas chromatography, biodiesel production equipment a test that verifies only the more important of the variables above. More make your own biodiesel complete tests are more expensive. Fuel biodiesel esterification meeting the quality standards is very non-toxic, with a toxicity rating (LD50) of greater than berks county biodiesel 50 mL/kg.

Biodiesel sample

Applications

Biodiesel can biodiesel australia be used in pure form (B100) or may be blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration biodiesel cars in most modern diesel engines. Biodiesel will degrade natural rubber gaskets and hoses in biodiesel infopop vehicles (mostly found in vehicles manufactured before 1992), although biodiesel manufactures these tend to wear out naturally and most likely will biodiesel winter additives have already been replaced with Viton which is nonreactive to biodiesel. Biodiesel's higher lubricity index compared to plastics biodiesel dissolves petrodiesel is an advantage and can contribute to longer fuel biodiesel plants injector life. Biodiesel is a better solvent than petrodiesel and biodiesel boiling point has been known to break down deposits of residue in the fuel lines of vehicles biodiesel methoxide mixer that have previously been run on petrodiesel. Fuel filters make biodiesel may become clogged with particulates if a quick transition to pure biodiesel is made, as biodiesel “cleans” the biodiesel from algae engine in the process. It is, therefore, recommended to change the fuel filter within 600-800 miles after first switching to a biodiesel recipe biodiesel blend.

Usage

In warm biodiesel and patent climates, pure unblended biodiesel can be poured straight into the tank of any diesel vehicle. Some older biodiesel manufacturing diesel engines still have natural rubber parts biodiesel processor which will be affected by biodiesel, but in practice these rubber parts should have been dimethyl carbonate biodiesel replaced long ago. Biodiesel has been noted to be linked to premature injection pump failures.citation needed] While many vehicles have been using biodiesel biodiesel fuel producers by state for many years without ill biodiesel magazine effect, the uncanny correlation between several cases of pump failure and biodiesel cannot be dismissed. Pure biodiesel produced 'at home' is in biodiesel manufacturing and processing use by thousands of drivers who have biodiesel plant not experienced failure, however. The fact remains that biodiesel is a very new subject and will pa federal biodiesel grants carry some risk until it is biodiesel plant fire in idaho fully researched. Biodiesel sold publicly is held to high standards set biodiesel processors by the ASTM.

Gelling

The temperature at which pure (B100) biodiesel starts to gel varies biodiesel ultrasonics significantly and depends upon the mix of esters and therefore the feedstock oil dimethylcarbonate biodiesel used to produce the biodiesel. For example, biodiesel produced from low erucic acid varieties of canola seed (RME) starts to gel biodiesel formula at approximately -10 °C. biodiesel forum Biodiesel produced from tallow tends to gel at around +16 °C. As of biodiesel preesterification 2006, there are a very limited number of products that will significantly lower the biodiesel technology gel point of straight biodiesel. One such product, Wintron XC30, has been shown to reduce the gel point of business plan for biodiesel pure biodiesel fuels. Wintron XC30 is a blend of styrene copolymer esters in homemade biodiesel a toluene base. It reduces the tendency of the viscosity of biodiesel to increase as it is biodiesel business plan cooled. This is a key step in biodiesel companies cold temperature crystallisation. In this way it acts biodiesel dissolves to decrease both the temperature at which the crystals formed become large enough to biodiesel producers block the pores of a fuel filter (cold filter plugging point or biodiesel supply CFPP) and the lowest temperature at which the fuel will still flow (pour point). A number of studies have red shield biodiesel shown that winter operation is possible with biodiesel blended with other where to buy biodiesel fuel oils including #2 low sulfur diesel fuel and #1 diesel / kerosene. australian biodiesel The exact blend depends on the operating environment: successful operations have run using a 65% biodiesel antigel agent LS #2, 30% K #1, and 5 % bio blend. Other areas have run a 70 % biodiesel as a solvent Low Sulfur #2, 20 % Kerosene #1, biodiesel distillation reduced pressure and 10% bio blend or a 80% biodiesel flow chart K#1, and 20 % biodiesel blend. According to the National Biodiesel Board (NBB), B20 (20 % biodiesel, 80 % petrodiesel) does emissions from chicken fat biodiesel plant not need any treatment in addition to what is already taken with petrodiesel.

Water contamination

Biodiesel, although hydrophobic, may contain small but problematic world biodiesel production quantities of water. Some of the water present is residual to processing, and biodiesel amberlite some comes from storage tank condensation. The presence of water is a problem because:

  • Water reduces the biodiesel and vw engines heat of combustion of the bulk fuel. This means more smoke, harder starting, less power.
  • Water causes biodiesel basics corrosion of vital fuel system components: biodiesel batching fuel pumps, injector pumps, fuel lines, etc.
  • Water freezes to form biodiesel canada ice crystals near 0 °C (32 °F). These crystals provide sites for nucleation and accelerate the gelling of the biodiesel canola press residual fuel.
  • Water accelerates the growth of microbe colonies which can plug up a biodiesel chemicals fuel system. Biodiesel users who have heated fuel tanks biodiesel filter cartridge 10 micron therefore face a year-round microbe problem.

Previously, the amount of water contaminating biodiesel has been difficult to measure by taking samples, biodiesel manufacturing equipment since water and oil separate. However it is now possible to measure the water biodiesel plans content using water biodiesel sulfur analysis in oil sensors.

Availability

For more details on this topic, see Biodiesel around the World.

Production

Main article: Biodiesel production

Chemically, transesterified biodiesel biodiesel systems comprises a mix of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids. The most common current fuel prices biodiesel diesel heating oil form uses methanol to make biodiesel automatically produce methyl esters as it is the cheapest alcohol available, though ethanol can be used to produce olympic biodiesel an ethyl ester biodiesel and higher alcohols such as isopropanol and butanol have also seattle biodiesel been used. Using alcohols of higher molecular weights advantages of magnesol in biodiesel improves the cold flow properties of the resulting ester, at alabama biodiesel grant the cost of a less efficient transesterification reaction. A byproduct of the transesterification process is the production of glycerol. A lipid transesterification production algae biodiesel process is used to convert the base oil to the bc biodiesel feedstock assessment study prepared by s&t2 desired esters. Any Free fatty acids (FFAs) in the biodiesel car kits base oil are either converted to soap and removed from the process, or they are biodiesel proccessing systems esterified (yielding more biodiesel) using an acidic biodiesel prosessers catalyst. After this processing, unlike straight vegetable oil, biodiesel has combustion properties very similar to those of petroleum diesel, and can replace it biodiesel storage in most current uses.

Biodiesel feedstock

Soybeans are used as a source of biodiesel

A variety of oils can be used to produce diy biodiesel biodiesel. These include:

  • Virgin oil fuel oil biodiesel stock feedstock; rapeseed and soybean oils are most commonly used, though government grant biodiesel other crops such as mustard, palm oil, hemp, jatropha, and even algae show promise (see List of vegetable oils home biodiesel for a more complete list);
  • Waste vegetable oil (WVO);
  • Animal fats including tallow, lard, yellow grease and as a byproduct old town biodiesel from the production of Omega-3 fatty acids from aquatic species program: biodiesel algae,nrel fish oil.

Worldwide production of vegetable oil and animal fat is not yet sufficient to replace liquid fossil fuel biodiesel bumper sticker use. Furthermore, some environmental groups object to the biodiesel distributor vast amount of farming and the resulting over-fertilization, pesticide biodiesel generator use, and land use conversion that would be needed to produce the biodiesel heater additional vegetable oil.

Many advocates suggest that waste vegetable oil is the best source of oil to produce biodiesel. However, the biodiesel make your own available supply is drastically less than the amount of petroleum-based fuel that is burned biodiesel manuf. for transportation and home heating in the world. According to the United States biodiesel no methanol Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), restaurants in the US produce about 300 million US gallons (1,000,000 biodiesel old town maine m³) of waste cooking oil annually.[1] Although biodiesel plant designs it is economically profitable to use WVO to produce biodiesel, it is biodiesel process mixers in australia even more profitable to convert WVO into other products such as soap. Hence, most WVO that is not dumped biodiesel processing into landfills is used for biodiesel producers madison wi these other purposes. Animal fats are similarly limited in supply, and it would not be biodiesel production from algae efficient to raise animals simply for their fat. However, producing biodiesel safety biodiesel with animal fat that would have otherwise been discarded could replace a small percentage of petroleum diesel usage.

The estimated transportation fuel biodiesel stations and home biodiesel technologies heating oil used in the United States is about 230 billion US gallons (0.87 km³) (Briggs, 2004). Waste vegetable biodiesel test oil and animal fats would not biodiesel where to buy distilled water be enough to meet this demand. In the United States, estimated production blue sky biodiesel of vegetable oil for all uses is about 24 billion pounds (11 million tons) or department of agriculture and biodiesel grants 3 billion US gallons (0.011 km³), and estimated production of animal fat is 12 billion pounds extreme biodiesel (5.3 million tons). (Van Gerpen, 2004)

Biodiesel feedstock plants utilize photosynthesis to convert solar energy how to sell biodiesel into chemical energy. The stored chemical energy is released when kinetics biodiesel it is burned, therefore plants can offer a sustainable oil source for kudzu as biodiesel source biodiesel production. Most of the carbon dioxide emitted when burning biodiesel is simply recycling that which was absorbed portland biodiesel during plant growth, so the net production of washing biodiesel greenhouse gasses is small and CO2 zero.

Feedstock yield efficiency per acre affects the feasibility of ramping water removal biodiesel esterification up production to the huge industrial levels required to power a signifcant percentage of national or biodiesel and warranty world vehicles. The highest yield feedstock for biodiesel is algae, which can produce 250 biodiesel at home times the amount per acre as soybeans.[2]

Feedstock US Gallons/acre Litres/hectare
Soybean 40 375
Rapeseed 110 1,000
Mustard 140 1,300
Jatropha 175 1,590
Palm oil 650 5,800
Algae 10,000 95,000

Efficiency and economic arguments

According to a study written by Drs. Van Dyne biodiesel dealer and Raymer for the Tennessee Valley Authority, the average US farm consumes fuel at the rate of biodiesel distilled water 82 liters per hectare (8.75 US gallons biodiesel duramax per acre) of land to produce one crop. However, average crops of rapeseed produce oil at an average biodiesel fuel kits rate of 1,029 L/ha (110 US gal/acre), and high-yield rapeseed biodiesel kitsap fields produce about 1,356 L/ha (145 US gal/acre). biodiesel pictures The ratio of input to output in these cases is roughly 1:12.5 and 1:16.5. Photosynthesis is known biodiesel prices to have an efficiency rate of about 16 % and if the biodiesel stocks entire mass of a crop is utilized for energy production, the overall efficiency of this chain is biodiesel suppliers known to be about 1 %. This does not compare favorably to solar cells combined with an biodiesel truck conversion kits electric drive train. Biodiesel out-competes biodiesel ultrasonics high free fatty acids solar cells in cost and ease of deployment. However, cost of biodiesel fuel these statistics by themselves are not enough to show whether such a change makes economic sense. Additional factors must how to build a biodiesel plant be taken into account, such as: the fuel equivalent of the energy required for processing, the how to turn used cooking oil into biodiesel fuel yield of fuel making biodiesel from high titrating oil from raw oil, the return on cultivating food, and the relative cost of biodiesel versus petrodiesel. A 1998 joint study by the mid-atlantic biodiesel facility U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. old town maine biodiesel Department of Agriculture (USDA) traced many of the various costs show me biodiesel involved in the production of biodiesel and found that overall, it yields 3.2 units of fuel product energy for every unit turnkey biodiesel magnesol of fossil fuel energy consumed. [3] That measure willie nelson biodiesel is referred to as the energy yield. A comparison to petroleum diesel, petroleum gasoline biodiesel association australia and bioethanol using the USDA numbers can be biodiesel bumpersticker found at the Minnesota Department of Agriculture website[4] In the comparison petroleum diesel fuel is found to have biodiesel california a 0.843 energy yield, along with 0.805 for petroleum gasoline, and 1.34 for biodiesel colour bioethanol. The 1998 study used soybean oil primarily as the base oil to biodiesel drying calculate the energy yields. Furthermore, due to the higher energy density of biodiesel, combined with the biodiesel engine failures higher biodiesel houston efficiency of the diesel engine, a gallon of biodiesel produces the effective energy of 2.25 gallons of biodiesel in los angeles ethanol.[5] Also, higher oil yielding crops could increase the energy yield of biodiesel.

The debate biodiesel in oil furnaces over the energy balance of biodiesel is ongoing, however. Transitioning fully biodiesel industries australia p.j & a.d hill to biofuels could require immense tracts of land if traditional crops are used. The biodiesel investors problem is especially severe for nations with large biodiesel llc economies, since energy consumption scales with economic output.[6] If using only traditional biodiesel nz plants, most such nations do not have sufficient arable land to produce biofuel for the nation's vehicles. Nations with smaller economies (hence less biodiesel price energy consumption) and more arable land may be in better situations, although biodiesel processor kits many regions cannot afford to divert land away from food production. For biodiesel prosseses third world countries, biodiesel biodiesel retailers sources that use marginal land could make more sense, e.g. honge oil nuts [7] grown along roads or jatropha grown along rail lines. More recent biodiesel stock report studies using a species of algae with up to 50 % oil content have concluded that only 28,000 km² or 0.3 % biodiesel vehicles of the land area of bulk soybean oil biodiesel the US could be utilized to produce enough biodiesel to replace all transportation fuel the country currently centrifuge for biodiesel utilizes. Furthermore, otherwise unused desert land (which receives high solar radiation) could be most effective for growing the fatta biodiesel method algae, and the algae could utilize farm waste and excess CO2 from heartland biodiesel factories to help speed the growth home biodiesel production of the algae. [8] The direct source of the energy content of biodiesel is solar energy captured by plants during how do you make biodiesel photosynthesis. The website biodiesel.co.uk[9]discusses the jetta biodiesel positive energy balance of biodiesel:

When straw was left in the field, biodiesel production was new biodiesel strongly energy positive, yielding 1 GJ nova biodiesel biodiesel for every 0.561 GJ of energy input (a yield/cost ratio of 1.78).
When straw percentage of cars that run on biodiesel wikipedia was burned as fuel and oilseed rapemeal was used as a fertilizer, sonic and biodiesel patent the yield/cost ratio for biodiesel production was even better (3.71). In other words, for every unit of energy input to transterfication kinetics biodiesel produce biodiesel, the output was 3.71 units (the difference american biodiesel of 2.71 units would be from solar energy).

Biodiesel is becoming of interest to companies interested in commercial scale production as appleseed + open source reactor + biodiesel well as the more usual b100 biodiesel prices home brew biodiesel user and the user of straight vegetable baraboo, wi biodiesel luke oil or waste vegetable oil in diesel engines. Homemade biodiesel processors are many and varied. The success of biodiesel homebrewing, and micro-economy-of-scale biodiesel availability operations, continues to shatter the conventional business myth biodiesel board that large economy-of-scale operations are the most efficient and profitable. It is becoming biodiesel bumper stickers increasingly apparent that small-scale, localized, low-impact energy keeps more resources and revenue biodiesel car within communities, reduces damage to the environment, and requires less waste management.

Environmental benefits

Environmental benefits in comparison to petroleum based fuels include:

  • Biodiesel reduces emissions of carbon biodiesel generator hot water heater monoxide (CO) by approximately 50 % and carbon dioxide by biodiesel graphics 78 % on a biodiesel in canada net lifecycle basis because the carbon in biodiesel emissions is recycled from carbon that was already in the atmosphere, rather than biodiesel in grays harbor county, wa being new carbon from petroleum that was sequestered in the earth's crust. (Sheehan, 1998)
  • Biodiesel contains fewer biodiesel indiana aromatic hydrocarbons: benzofluoranthene: 56 % biodiesel making reduction; Benzopyrenes: 71 % reduction.citation needed]
  • Biodiesel can reduce by as biodiesel meth lab much as 20 % the direct (tailpipe) emission of particulates, small particles biodiesel peugeot of solid combustion products, on vehicles with particulate filters, compared biodiesel soap with low-sulfur (<50 ppm) diesel. Particulate emissions as the result of biodiesel water heater production are reduced by around 50 %, compared with fossil-sourced diesel. (Beer et al, 2004).
  • Biodiesel produces blue sun biodiesel between 10 % and 25 % more nitrogen oxide chemicals in biodiesel NOx tailpipe-emissions than petrodiesel. As biodiesel has a low sulphur content, NOx emissions can be reduced through the department of agriculture and biodiesel plants use of catalytic converters to less than the NOx emissions from conventional drying washed biodiesel diesel engines. Nonetheless, the NOx tailpipe emissions of biodiesel after the use of a calalytic ethanol and biodiesel produced at the same plant converter will remain greater than the ipo march 2006 biodiesel equivalent emissions from petrodiesel. As biodiesel contains no nitrogen, the increase in NOx emissions may be due to the sample grant proposal winner biodiesel higher cetane rating of biodiesel and higher oxygen content, which allows it to convert nitrogen from sonic and biodiesel and patent the atmosphere into NOx more rapidly. soybean biodiesel Debate continues over NOx emissions. In February 2006 a Navy biodiesel tetrahydrofuran biodiesel patent expert claimed NOx emissions in practice were actually lower than baseline. Further university of oregon biodiesel research is needed.
  • Biodiesel has higher cetane rating than petrodiesel, and therefore ignites more victor lin biodiesel rapidly when injected into the engine.
  • Biodiesel is biodegradable and non-toxic - the U.S. Department of Energy confirms that yellow grease as biodiesel biodiesel is less toxic than table salt and yellow grease in biodiesel production biodegrades as quickly as sugar. (See Biodiesel handling and use guidelines)
  • In the United States, biodiesel is the only alternative fuel to have successfully alltech biodiesel ethanol completed the Health Effects Testing requirements (Tier I and Tier II) of the arizona state university  biodiesel Clean Air Act (1990).

Since biodiesel is more often biodiesel acid pretreat used in a blend with petroleum diesel, biodiesel and finland there are fewer formal studies about the effects on pure biodiesel in unmodified engines and vehicles in day-to-day use. Fuel biodiesel central america meeting the standards and engine parts that can withstand the biodiesel company stocks greater solvent properties of biodiesel is expected to--and in reported cases does--run without biodiesel conversion kit any additional problems than the use of petroleum diesel.

  • The flash point of biodiesel (>150 °C) biodiesel dark is significantly higher than that of petroleum diesel biodiesel free fatty acids (64 °C) or gasoline (−45 °C). The gel point of biodiesel varies depending on the proportion of biodiesel from algea different types of esters contained. However, most biodiesel, including biodiesel fuel credit that made from soybean oil, has a somewhat higher gel and biodiesel glycerin use cloud point than petroleum diesel. In practice this often requires the heating of storage tanks, especially in cooler climates.
  • Pure biodiesel (B100) can be used biodiesel howto in any biodiesel hydrometer petroleum diesel engine, though it is more commonly used in lower concentrations. Some areas have mandated ultra-low sulfur petrodiesel, which reduces the natural biodiesel in oh viscosity and lubricity of the fuel due to biodiesel ireland the removal of sulfur and certain other materials. Additives are required to make biodiesel piston ULSD properly flow in engines, making biodiesel one popular alternative. Ranges as low biodiesel podcast as 2 % (B2) have been shown to restore lubricity. Many municipalities have started using 5 % biodiesel processors and designs biodiesel (B5) in snow-removal biodiesel questions and answers equipment and other systems.

Environmental concerns

Where the oil is grown is of increasing concern to environmentalists, one of the worries being that countries will deforest biodiesel refinery areas to grow oil producing biodiesel sample recipe plants. This has already occurred in the Philippines and Indonesia, and both biodiesel stock of these countries plan to increase their biodiesel production levels which will deforest tens of millions of acres biodiesel stock investment [1].

The Union of Concerned Scientists writes: "When it biodiesel use comes to buying a new car, gasoline-powered models are better than diesels on toxic soot and smog-forming emissions. biodiesel vegifuel The downside to current diesels is that they produce 10 to 20 times more toxic particulates biodiesel video than their gasoline counterparts, more than can biodiesel volumetric yield be made up for with the use of biodiesel. Diesels fare even worse when it comes to smog-forming nitrogen biodiesel waste rcra oxide emissions, with greater than 20 times biodiesel work the emissions of a comparable gasoline vehicle." [10]

Historical background

Transesterification of a vegetable common mistakes when making biodiesel oil was conducted as early as 1853, by scientists E. Duffy and J. Patrick, many earth biofuels ethanol biodiesel durant ok years before the first diesel engine became east fork biodiesel functional. Rudolf Diesel's prime model, a single 10 ft (3 m) goran jovanovic biodiesel microreactor iron cylinder with a flywheel at its base, ran on its own power for the first time in Augsburg, Germany on August heterogeneous catalyst biodiesel plant 10, home heating oil biodiesel 1893. In remembrance of this event, August 10 has been declared International Biodiesel Day. Diesel later demonstrated his engine and received ioi corp plans to build a $27 million biodiesel plant the "Grand Prix" (highest prize) at the World Fair land cruiser biodiesel in Paris, France in 1900. This engine stood as an example of Diesel's vision because it magellan biodiesel test was powered by peanut oil—a biofuel, though not strictly biodiesel, since it was not transesterified. He maine biodiesel believed that the utilization of a biomass fuel was the real future of mercedes benz and biodiesel his engine. In a 1912 speech, Rudolf Diesel said "the use of vegetable mid-atlantic biodiesel oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today, but such oils may become, in nh biodiesel the course of time, as important as petroleum and the pacific biodiesel coal-tar products of the present time." [2]

During the 1920s diesel engine manufacturers altered their engines to pennsylvania biodiesel utilize the lower viscosity of the fossil fuel (petrodiesel) rather purchasing biodiesel than vegetable oil, a biomass fuel. The petroleum industries were able to make inroads in fuel markets because small scale biodiesel and finland their fuel smart cars and biodiesel was much cheaper to produce than the biomass alternatives. The result soy biodiesel was, for many years, a near elimination of the biomass fuel production infrastructure. Only recently have environmental impact concerns and a waterless washing with biodiesel decreasing cost differential made biomass fuels such as why not to use magnesol for biodiesel biodiesel a growing alternative.

Research into the use of trans-esterified sunflower argentina air force biodiesel jet oil and refining it to diesel fuel standard was initiated in South Africa biodiesel + license in 1979. By 1983 the process to produce fuel quality engine-tested bio-diesel was completed and published internationally (SAE Technical Paper biodiesel albany series no. 831356. SAE International Off Highway Meeting, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, 1983). An Austrian Company, biodiesel alberta Gaskoks, obtained the technology from the South African biodiesel astm lab Agricultural Engineers, put up the first pilot plant for bio-diesel in November biodiesel bumper emblem 1987 and the erection of the first industrial bio-diesel plant on 12 April 1989, with a capacity of biodiesel byproducts 30 000 tons of rapeseed per annum. Throughout the 1990s, plants were opened in many European biodiesel car for sale countries, including the Czech biodiesel car rental oahu Republic, France, Germany, Sweden. At the same time, nations in other parts biodiesel car warranty of world also saw local production of biodiesel starting up and by 1998, the Austrian Biofuels Institute identified biodiesel cloudiness 21 countries with commercial biodiesel projects.

In the 1990s, France launched the local production of biodiesel fuel (known locally as diester) obtained biodiesel consultant by the transesterification of rapeseed biodiesel conversion kits oil. It is mixed to the proportion of 5 % into regular diesel fuel, and to the biodiesel converter, manufacturer proportion of 30 % into the diesel fuel used by some captive fleets (public biodiesel cost transportation). Renault, Peugeot, and other manufacturers have certified biodiesel cost savings truck engines for use with up to this partial biodiesel. Experiments biodiesel crops,southern us with 50 % biodiesel are underway.

In September of 2005 Minnesota biodiesel cti texas became the first state to require that all diesel fuel sold in biodiesel dry washing units that state contain part biodiesel. The Minnesota law requires at least 2% biodiesel in biodiesel equipment manufacturing all diesel fuel sold.[3]

Current research

There is ongoing research into finding more suitable crops and improving oil yield. Using the current yields, vast biodiesel expo amounts of land and fresh water would be needed to produce enough biodiesel feedstocks oil to completely replace fossil fuel usage. It would require twice the land area of biodiesel filtration the US to be devoted to soybean biodiesel financial reports production, or two-thirds to be devoted to rapeseed production, to meet current US heating biodiesel fuel and grants and transportation needs.

Specially bred mustard varieties can produce reasonably high oil yields, biodiesel fuel kerosene turbine and have the added benefit that the meal leftover after the oil biodiesel fuel stations has been pressed out can act as an effective and biodegradable pesticide.

Algaculture

Main article: algaculture

From 1978 biodiesel georgia coop to 1996, the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory experimented with biodiesel high pressure static mixer using algae as a biodiesel source biodiesel houston texas in the "Aquatic Species Program".[4] A recent paper from Michael Briggs at the UNH Biodiesel Group, offers estimates for the realistic replacement of all vehicular biodiesel in idaho fuel with biodiesel by utilizing algae that has biodiesel in minnesota a greater than 50 % natural biodiesel makers oil content, which he suggests can be grown on algae ponds at wastewater treatment plants. [5] On 2006-5-11. Aquaflow biodiesel making from soyabeans Bionomic Corporation from Marlborough, New Zealand announced it had biodiesel manufacturing plantsusa and canada produced its first sample of bio-diesel fuel made from algae found in sewage ponds.[6] Unlike previous biodiesel plant in pittsboro, nc attempts, the algae was naturally grown in pond discharge from the Marlborough District Council's sewage treatment works.

The production biodiesel plant manufacturer of algae to harvest oil for biodiesel has not been undertaken on a commercial biodiesel processor plans scale, but working feasibility biodiesel producer studies have been conducted to arrive at the above yield estimate. In addition to a high yield, this solution does not compete with biodiesel production description agriculture for food, requiring neither farmland nor fresh water.

This oil-rich algae can then biodiesel production facilities be extracted from the system and processed into biodiesel, and biodiesel production technologies the dried remainder further reprocessed to create ethanol.

See also

Biotechnology Portal
Ecology Portal
Energy Portal
Wikibooks has a book on biodiesel titration test the topic of
How to make biodiesel
Wikinews biodiesel training has news related to:
  • Portal:Environment
  • Economy_and_business#Commodities
  • Alcohol fuel
  • Algaculture (production of biodiesel from algae)
  • Appropriate technology
  • Butanol fuel, gasoline substitute.
  • Biodiesel production
  • Biofuel
  • Biogas via biodiesel vehicles in canada anaerobic digestion
  • Biomass to Liquid
  • Diesel engine
  • Diesel and biodiesel washing pros and cons petrodiesel
  • EN 14214
  • Energy balance
  • Environmental Biotechnology
  • Environmental economics
  • Ethanol fuel
  • Ethylester biodiesel
  • Future energy development
  • Jatropha In India
  • List of biodiesel without methanol diesel automobiles
  • List of vegetable oils section on oils used for biofuel
  • Methanol
  • Renewable energy
  • Straight vegetable oil building a biodiesel processing system (SVO)
  • Thermal depolymerization

References

  • A look back at the U.S. Department of Energy Aquatic Species program: Biodiesel from Algae, July buying shares in biodiesel 1998, J. complete biodiesel kits Sheehan, et. al. NREL (326pp), PDF file].
  • An Overview of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Lifecycles, May 1998, Sheehan, et. al. NREL (60pp pdf file)
  • Business Management for Biodiesel cranola biodiesel Producers, January 2004, Jon Von Gerpen, Iowa State University under contract current biodiesel pump prices with the dan goodman biodiesel National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) (210pp pdf file)
  • Energy balances in the growth of oilseed rape for biodiesel and of wheat dodge biodiesel for bioethanol, June 2000, I.R. Richards
  • Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus, 1998, dry wash cost analysis for biodiesel Sheehan, et. al. NREL (314pp pdf german biodiesel reactors file)
  • Widescale Biodiesel Production from Algae, August 2004, Michael Briggs, UNH Retrieved December 6, 2004
  • Algae - like a hazelnut biodiesel breath mint for smokestacks, January 11, 2006, home made biodiesel Mark Clayton, Christian Science Monitor

Notes

  1. ^ EPA: OSWER: OSWER houston biodiesel Innovations Pilot: Reducing Production Costs and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Emissions from Biodiesel. Retrieved on November 2, 2005.
  2. ^ http://oakhavenpc.org/cultivating_algae.htm
  3. ^ Life how to market biodiesel projects in india Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in illinois biodiesel an Urban Bus (See above). Retrieved on October iowa biodiesel 24, 2005.
  4. ^ Minnesota Department of Agriculture website. Retrieved on October 24, 2005.
  5. ^ R-Squared Energy Blog. Retrieved ipo march 2006 biodiesel saudi texaco on August 26, 2006.
  6. ^ Looking Forward: Energy and jeep liberty biodiesel the Economy. Retrieved on August 29, 2006.
  7. ^ Hands On: jefferson grain processors wi ethanol biodiesel Power Pods - India. Retrieved on October 24, 2005.
  8. ^ UNH journey to forever biodiesel Biodiesel Group (See above). Retrieved on October 24, 2005.
  9. ^ Levington (See above). Retrieved on October 24, 2005.
  10. ^ http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_vehicles/big_rig_cleanup/biodiesel.html#Should_I_buy_a_new_gasoline_hybrid_vehic

External links

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- making biodiesel at home

Workshop on biodiesel in Chiang Mai 

The Nation - 2 hours, 41 minutes ago
Chiang Mai - The Energy Management and Conservation Centre (Emac) at Chiang Mai University is spearheading efforts to train community leaders to take advantage of the cost and environment benefits of biodiesel.

Chemrez sees more revenues from biodiesel 
INQ7 Business - Oct 08 8:25 AM
LISTED FIRM Chemrez Technologies Inc., formerly Corro-Coat Inc., expects its biodiesel business to eventually account for half of its revenues and 66 percent of its gross profits.

Corro-Coat bullish on biodiesel foray 
Manila Bulletin - Oct 08 9:47 AM
Listed firm Corro-Coat Inc. is positioning itself to become a biodiesel powerhouse and will eventually source 50 percent of its revenues and 66 percent of its gross profits from the sale of the coco-based alternative fuel.

Austin Biodiesel Conference 
KXAN 36 Austin - Oct 08 12:49 PM
Energy is in the news. Experts in Houston said that city's air pollution is toxic enough to cause death from cancer. In Hoover, Alabama, President Bush pushed for the continued development of alternative fuels.