The skull and crossbones symbol traditionally used to label a poisonous substance.
EU standard toxic symbol, poisen as defined by Directive 67/548/EEC.
For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation).
In the context of biology, poisons are substances poisson that can cause injury, pioson illness, or death to organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, poisin when a sufficient quantity is absorbed by an organism. Paracelsus, paison the father of toxicology states-- "Everything is poison, there is poison in everything. Only the dose makes a thing not polson a poison".
In medicine poson (particularly veterinary) and in zoology, a poison is often distinguished from a venom. Venoms are usually defined as biologic toxins that are poisn injected to cause their effect, while poisons are generally oison defined as substances which ppoison are absorbed through epithelial linings such as the skin or gut.
- 1 Terminology
- 2 Warning poisan symbols
- 3 Uses of poison
- 4 Biological poisoning
- 5 Poisoning poiso in humans
- 6 Poisoning poizon management
- 6.1 General poisom first aid
- 6.2 Initial medical management
- 6.3 Decontamination
- 6.4 Antidotes
- 6.5 Enhanced poision excretion
- 6.6 Further posin treatment
- 7 Types of poisons
- 8 References
- 9 See poison ivy also
- 10 External links
Some poisons are also poison oak toxins, usually referring to naturally produced substances, such as the bacterial proteins that cause tetanus poison sumac and botulism. A poison the well distinction between the two terms is not always observed, even among scientists.
Animal toxins that are alice cooper poison delivered subcutaneously (e.g. by sting or bite) are also called venom. In normal usage, poison control a poisonous organism is one that is poison the band harmful to consume, but a venomous organism uses poison to defend itself while still alive. A single organism can be both venomous and poisonous.
The derivative poison mp3 forms "toxic" and "poisonous" are synonymous.
Within chemistry and physics, poison every rose has its thorn a poison is a substance that obstructs or inhibits a reaction, for example poison control center by poison ivy 3 binding to a catalyst.
The phrase "poison" is often used poison ivy 2 colloquially to describe any harmful substance:
- Carcinogens, such as some artificial sweeteners, Asbestos, Benzene, Carbon tetrachloride, Dioxin, poison alice cooper and tobacco
- Mutagens, such as Ultraviolet rays (Long term exposure may cause rat poison skin cancer such as Melanoma) and other Ionizing Radiation (causes radiation sickness and cancer)
- Teratogens, such as Thalidomide
- Pollutants can poisons be poisonous, or they can be non-poisonous but harmful treating poison ivy in other ways.
Poisons have been known to be symbolized by the skull every rose has its thorn poison and crossbones, indicating lethal potential. This is the UN standard symbol, used in the European poison every rose Union. However, it can ant poison be considered a liability for marketing. In the United States, other symbols such as Mr. Yuk are replacing pretty poison the skull and crossbones. Proponents of the Mr. Yuk argue that the skull-and-crossbones symbols poison dart frogs attracts mole poison children because of its association to pirates, and assert that Mr. Yuk does not.
Chemicals with non-lethal hazards, such as corrosivity, mild toxicity and vermin poison harmfulness, may be informally referred to as "poisons", gopher poison but are not usually marked with the skull-and-crossbones symbol. poison arrow frog To contrast, see also the definitions of corrosive, harmful, environmentally hazardous and irritant. The poison ivy pictures UN standard symbol for harmful and irritant substances is an 'X' on an orange background. This alice cooper - poison is applied to materials with non-lethal gopher poisons hazards as well as to potentially lethal materials.
Uses of poison
The uses of poisons specifically because of their toxicity is limited. Applications have been mainly for controlling pests and weeds, rodent poisons and for preserving building materials and food vermin poisons stuffs. Where possible, specific agents which are less poisonous to humans have come to be preferred, vole poison but exceptions such as phosphine continue in mole poisons use.
Throughout human history, intentional application of poison has been rodent poison used as a method of assassination, murder, suicide and execution. As a method of execution, poison has been ingested, as alyssa milano poison ivy the ancient Athenians did (see Socrates), inhaled, as with carbon poison fallen angel monoxide or hydrogen cyanide (see gas chamber), or injected (see lethal injection). poison ivy cures Many languages describe lethal injection with their corresponding words for "poison shot".
Poisonous materials are often sun poison used for their chemical or physical properties other poison ivy contagious than being poisonous. The most effective, easiest, safest, or cheapest option poison symbol for use in a chemical synthesis may be a poisonous material. Particularly in experimental laboratory poison band syntheses a specific reactivity is used, despite the toxicity of bell biv devoe poison the reagent. Chromic acid is an example of such a "simple poison sumac rash to use" reagent. Many technical applications call bullet for my valentine the poison for some specific physical properties; a toxic substance may possess these properties and therefore be superior. Reactivity, in particular, is important. Hydrogen alice cooper poison mp3 fluoride, for example, poison dart frog is poisonous and extremely corrosive. However, it has a high affinity for silicon, which is exploited by using the poison HF to etch glass or to manufacture silicon semiconductor chips.
Acute poisoning poison remix is exposure to a poison rock band poison on one occasion or during a short period poison talk dirty to me of time. Symptoms develop in close relation to the exposure.
Chronic poisoning is long-term repeated or continuous exposure to a poison ivey poison where symptoms do not occur immediately jaime pressly in poison ivy or after each exposure. The patient gradually becomes ill, or becomes ill blue poison dart frog after a long latent period. Chronic poisoning most commonly occurs following exposure to poisons that bioaccumulate such poison hemlock as mercury and lead.
Contact or absorption of poisons can cause rapid death or impairment. Agents that stingray poison act on the nervous system can paralyze in poison ivy batman seconds or less, and include both biologically home remedies for poison ivy derived neurotoxins and so-called nerve gases, which may be synthesized for warfare or industry.
Inhaled or ingested cyanide as used poison music as method of poison ivy picture execution on US gas chambers almost instantly starves the body of energy by inhibiting the poison arrow enzymes in mitochondria that make ATP. Intravenous injection of an unnaturally high concentration of potassium chloride, such poison plants as in the execution of prisoners in parts of the United States, jaime pressly poison ivy quickly stops the heart by arsenic poison eliminating the cell potential necessary for muscle contraction.
Most (but not all) pesticides systemic poison ivy are created to act as poisons to target organisms, although acute or less observable chronic poisoning can also occur in non-target organism, including harley quinn and poison ivy poison lyrics the humans who apply the pesticides and other beneficial organisms.
Many substances regarded as poisons are toxic only indirectly. An example is "wood alcohol" poison - every rose has its thorn or methanol, which is not poisonous itself, but is chemically alice cooper- poison converted to toxic aspartame ant poison formaldehyde and formic acid in the liver. Many drug molecules are made toxic in the liver, and the deadly poisons genetic variability of certain liver enzymes makes the toxicity lead poison of many compounds differ between individuals.
The study of the symptoms, mechanisms, treatment and diagnosis of biological poisoning is known poison ivy: the new seduction as toxicology.
Exposure to radioactive poison every rose has it's thorn substances can produce radiation poisoning, an unrelated phenomenon.
Poisoning in humans
- Poisoning is the fourth most common cause poison oak pictures of accidental fallen angel poison deaths in children.
- Children less than 5 years of age and adolescent are prone to pictures of poison ivy poisoning.
- Accidental ingestions are most common in children less than 5 poison ivy the new seduction years old.
- 90% of all poisonings occur at home, the most common site being the kitchen and the bathroom.
- Unintentional poisonings occur most poison - alice cooper frequently when routines are disrupted, for example moving and vacations.
- Child safety caps have helped decrease poison rings the number of poison rock group poisonings; however, they are not 100% effective and should not give a false sense of security.
- All potential poisons should poison something to believe in be properly labeled, stored out of reach of poison unskinny bop children, and locked.
- Medications should not be taken in front of small children common poisons or called "candy" (or "sweets" for non Americans).
- Adolescent ingestions are more typically a result of suicidal attempts or how to get rid of poison ivy picture of poison ivy experimentation with illicit drugs.
- Parents should receive anticipatory guidance regarding poisonings and should have the number to poison ivy uma thurman reach their local poison control center available, in the USA the phone number is 1-800-222-1222. alyssa milano poison ivy pics Poison control centers are free, 24 hours, drew barrymore poison ivy and confidential.
- Poison Control Centers (In the US reachable durban poison at 1-800-222-1222 at all hours) provide immediate, free, and expert treatment advice and assistance over the telephone in case poison sumac pictures of suspected exposure to poisons or toxic substances.
General first poison the well nerdy aid
- If the poison is an inhalant, remove the patient from the area and to how to kill poison ivy fresh air.
- If the poisoning is affecting every rose has it's thorn poison the skin, remove the clothing and wash the skin thoroughly unless a dry powder is the cause every rose poison of the poisoning.
- If the poison is in the eye, flush the eye thoroughly for at poison frogs least 15 minutes.
- Following ingestion, poison ivy plant ensure the person remains calm, do not induce vomiting, small fluids are recommended for corrosive substances (e.g. household talk dirty to me poison cleaners).
- Following these measures a poison control center can be contacted for advice cures for poison ivy on what to do next.
Initial medical management
- Initial management for all poisonings includes ensuring home remedies for poison oak adequate cardiopulmonary function and providing treatment for any symptoms batman poison ivy such as seizures, shock, and pain.
- The goal of gastric decontamination is to prevent absorption of poison well the toxin. This may be achieved using activated charcoal, whole bowel irrigation, or nasogastric aspiration. Gastric lavage, identify poison sumac cathartics, emesis, or Ipecac are no longer routinely recommended.
- Activated charcoal is poison fight the treatment of choice to prevent poison songs absorption of the poison. It is usually administered when the patient is in the emergency room. However, charcoal is poison sumack ineffective against metals, Na, K, alcohols, glycols, acids, and alkalis.
- Whole bowel irrigation cleanses the squirrel poison bowel, this is achieved unskinny bop poison by giving the patient large amounts of a polyethylene glycol solution. The osmotically balanced polyethylene how to poison a cat glycol solution is not absorbed into the body, having the effect of flushing out the entire poison look what the cat dragged in gastrointestinal tract. Its major uses are following ingestion abamectin poison of sustained release drugs, toxins that are not absorbed is poison oak contagious by activated charcoal (i.e. lithium, iron), and for the removal of ingested packets poison - every rose of drugs (body packing/smuggling).
- Nasogastric aspiration involves the placement of a tube via the nose down into the stomach, the poison bell biv devoe stomach poison gas contents are then removed via suction. This procedure is mainly used for liquid ingestions poison i want action where activated charcoal is ineffective, i.e. ethylene glycol.
- Gastric lavage, commonly known as poison idea a stomach pump, is the insertion of a tube through the mouth down into the stomach, followed by poison ivy from batman administration of water or saline down the tube, the poison parsnip liquid is then removed again, having the overall effect of poison perfume removing the contents of the stomach. Lavage has been used for many poison sumac tree years as an initial treatment for poisoned patients, however, a recent review of the procedure for poison ingestions suggested lavage cat poison should mice and poison and glue and trap no longer be employed routinely, if ever, in the management of poisoned patients. It is still sometimes poison mushrooms performed if it can be performed within 1 h of ingestion a poison tree and the dose is potentially life threatening.
- Emesis (i.e. induced by ipecac) is no longer recommended in poisoning situations.
- Cathartics were postulated to decrease absorption by increasing the plant food poisons expulsion of the poison from poison greatest hits the gastrointestinal tract. There are two types of cathartics used in poisoned patients; saline cathartics (sodium sulfate, magnesium batman and poison ivy citrate, magnesium sulfate) and saccharide cathartics (sorbitol). They do not appear to improve bell biv devoe - poison patient outcome and are no longer recommended.
Some poisons have specific is poison ivy contagious antidotes:
|Vitamin K anticoagulants
|iron (and lead poison attorneys brooklyn poison movie mix mp3 other heavy metals)
||ethanol or fomepizole
||ethanol or fomepizole
||amyl nitrite, sodium nitrite & sodium thiosulfate
- In some poison spider situations elimination of the poison can be enhanced using diuresis, hemodialysis, hemoperfusion, prednisone poison ivy peritoneal dialysis, or exchange transfusion.
- In the majority of poisonings the mainstay of management is providing supportive ackee poison care for the patient, i.e. treating the symptoms rather than the poison.
Types of poisons
The majority of this section is sorted by ICD-10 lead poison lawyers new york code, which classifies poisons based upon the nature of the poison itself. However, it is also mercury poison possible to classify poisons based upon the effect the poison has (for example, "Metabolic poisons" such as kari wuhrer poison Antimycin, Malonate, and 2,4-Dinitrophenol act by adversely disrupting lead poison lawyers new york city the normal metabolism of an organism.)
(T36-T50) Poisoning by drugs, medicaments and biological poison arrow frogs substances
(T36.) Poisoning by systemic antibiotics
(T37.) Poisoning by other systemic anti-infectives and antiparasitics
(T38.) Poisoning by hormones and their synthetic poison bobby fight substitutes and antagonists, not elsewhere poison bracelets classified
(T39.) Poisoning by nonopiod analgesics, antipyretics and antirheumatics
(T40.) Poisoning by narcotics and psychodysleptics (hallucinogens)
(T41.) Poisoning poison control centers by anaesthetics and therapeutic gases
(T42.) Poisoning poison prevention by antiepileptic, sedative-hypnotic and antiparkinsonism drugs
(T43.) Poisoning by psychotropic drugs, not elsewhere classified
(T44.) Poisoning by drugs primarily untraceable poisons affecting the autonomic nervous system Neurotoxins interfere how to treat poison ivy with nervous system functions and often lead to near-instant paralysis followed by rapid death. They include most spider poison bananas and snake venoms, as well as many modern chemical weapons. One class of toxins of poison control first aid interest to neurochemical researchers are the various poison symptoms cone snail toxins known as conotoxins.
Cell membrane disrupters Others
- Nicotine - skunk poison not strictly a neurotoxin, but capable in large doses of causing heart attack
(T45.) Poisoning by primarily the poison bullet for my valentine alyssa milano in poison ivy 2 systemic and haematological agents, not elsewhere classified
- Phytohaemagglutinin (Red kidney bean poisoning)
(T46.) Poisoning by best cure for poison ivy agents primarily affecting the cardiovascular system
(T47.) Poisoning by agents primarily affecting the gastrointestinal system
(T48.) Poisoning by agents primarily acting on smooth and skeletal fire ant poison muscles and the respiratory system
(T49.) Poisoning by topical agents primarily affecting alice cooper poison lyrics skin and mucous membrane and arrow poison by ophthalmological, otorhinolaryngological and dental drugs
(T50.) Poisoning by diuretics and other unspecified drugs, medicaments and biological boric acid poison synmtoms substances
(T51-T65) Toxic effects of substances chiefly nonmedicinal as to source
(T51.) Toxic effect how to poison coyotes of alcohol
- (T51.0) Ethanol
- (T51.1) Methanol
(T52.) Toxic effect of how to poison someone organic solvents
(T53.) Toxic effect of halogen derivatives of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons
(T54.) Toxic effect of corrosive substances johnson grass poison Corrosives mechanically damage biological systems on contact. Both the sensation and injury lead poison lawyers bronx caused by contact with a corrosive resembles a burn injury.
- Acids and bases, corrosives
- Various light little drop of poison metal oxides, hydroxides, picture of poison oak superoxides
- Bleach, some pool chemicals, other hypochlorates (acidic and oxydizing effect)
- Hydrofluoric acid
Acids (T54.2) Strong inorganic acids, such as concentrated sulfuric acid, poison hemlock herbicide nitric acid or hydrochloric acid, destroy any biological tissue with which they come in poison ivy ii contact within seconds.
Bases (T54.3) poison spider customs Strong inorganic bases, such as lye, gradually dissolve skin on contact but can cause serious damage to eyes or mucous prodigy poison membranes much more rapidly. pure poison perfume Ammonia is a far weaker base than lye, but has sting ray poison the distinction of being a gas and thus may more easily come into contact with the 80's band poison sensitive mucous membranes of the respiratory system. Quicklime, which has household uses, is a particularly common cause alice cooper - poison mp3 of poisoning. Some aspartame as ant poison of the light metals, if handled carelessly, can not only cause thermal burns, but also produce very strongly basic solutions in how to make rat poison sweat.
(T55.) Toxic effect of soaps and poison ivy and oak herbicides detergents
(T56.) Toxic effect of metals A common trait shared by heavy metals poison ivy blisters is the chronic nature of their toxicity (a notable exception would be bismuth, poison ivy spreading after steroids which is considered entirely non-toxic). Low levels of heavy metal salts ingested over time poison life goes on accumulate in the body until toxic levels are reached.
Heavy metals are generally far more toxic when ingested poison oak picture in the form of what is poison soluble salts than in elemental form. For example, alyssa milano poison ivy clip metallic mercury passes through the human digestive tract without interaction and is commonly used in dental fillings—even though mercury band poison salts and inhaled mercury vapor are highly toxic.
- (T56.0) Lead death by poison poisoning
- (T56.1) Mercury
- (T56.2) Chromium
- (T56.3) Cadmium
- (T56.7) Beryllium (a highly but subtly jamie pressley poison toxic light metal)
(T57.) Toxic effect of other inorganic substances
- (T57.0) Arsenic (see arsenic poisoning)
- Arsenic compounds
- Arsenic trioxide
- Fowler's solution
- (T57.1) The most picture of poison sumac rash notable substance in this class is phosphorus.
(T58.) Toxic poison apple effect of carbon monoxide
- (T58) By far the most notable metabolic poison is carbon monoxide, which blocks the ability of red poison bottle blood cells to transport oxygen.
(T59.) Toxic effect of other gases, fumes and poison buddy icons vapours
- Formaldehyde (T59.2)
- Hydrogen sulfide
Oxidizers Poisons of this class are generally not very poison ivy 2 clips harmful to higher life forms such as humans (for poison ivy and batman whom the outer layer of cells are poison ivy leaf more or less disposable), but lethal to microorganisms such as bacteria. Typical examples are ozone poison spiders and chlorine (T59.4), either of which is added to nearly poison your mama don't dance every municipal water supply in order to kill pressly poison any harmful microorganisms present.
All halogens are strong oxidizing agents, fluorine (T59.5) being the strongest of all.
- See also: Free radical
(T60.) Toxic uma thurman poison ivy effect of pesticides
- Pesticide poisoning
- Fluoroacetate is aspartame poison a metabolic poison that blocks a vital step in the citric acid cycle.
- Rotenone is a metabolic poison that disrupts electron transport in gto poison cellular respiration.
(T61.) Toxic effect of noxious substances eaten as seafood
- Ciguatera poisoning
- Scombroid poisoning
- Shellfish toxins lil poison (PSP, DSP, NSP, ASP )
- Domoic acid (or Amnesic Shellfish Poison, ASP)
(T62.) Toxic perfume poison effect of poison center other noxious substances eaten as food
- Food poisoning
- Botulin toxin
- Hemlock water dropwort
- Grayanotoxin (Honey poison mushroom intoxication)
- Tetanospasmin (Tetanos Toxin)
(T63.) Toxic effect of venomous animals
(T64.) Toxic effect of aflatoxin and poison pictures other mycotoxin food contaminants
- Fungal toxins
- Amanita toxin, see Amanita phalloides
(T65.) Toxic effect of other and unspecified substances
- (T65.0) Cyanide is a poison sumak metabolic poison rat poisons that bonds with an enzyme involved in ATP production.
- ^ (2004). sumac poison "Position paper: whole bowel irrigation.". J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 (6): your poison 843-54. PMID 15533024.
- ^ Vale JA, Kulig K; American Academy of Clinical Toxicology; flea control poison European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists. (2004). "Position paper: gastric lavage.". food to eat poison ivy J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 (7): 933-43. PMID 15641639.
- ^ (2004). "Position paper: Ipecac how to recognize poison ivy syrup.". J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 (2): 133-43. PMID 15214617.
- ^ (2004). "Position paper: cathartics.". J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 (3): 243-53. PMID 15362590.
- Food taster
- Lethal injection
- List of poisonings
- List of fictional toxins
- List of extremely hazardous substances
- American Association of Poison Control Centers
- Household Chemical Encyclopedia - 101 Potential Household Hazards
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Categories: Execution methods | Toxicology