For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation).
Fossil range: Cretaceous - Recent
A coral sankes snake
Superfamilies and snales Families
Snakes (from Old English snaca, and ultimately from the Proto-Indo-European base *snag- or *sneg-, "to snaked crawl"), also known as ophidians, are cold-blooded legless reptiles closely related to lizards, which share the order Squamata. snkaes There are also several species of snkes legless lizard which superficially resemble snakes, but are not otherwise related to them. A love of snakes is called ophiophilia, a fear snakez of snakes is called ophidiophobia. A specialist in snakes is an ophiologist.
An old synonym ssnakes for snake is serpent (which comes from Old French, and ultimately snskes from *serp-, "to creep"); in modern usage this usually refers to a mythic or smakes symbolic snake, and information about such creatures can be found sbakes under serpent (symbolism). This article deals with the snajes biology of snakes.
- 1 Evolution
- 2 Feeding
- 3 Skin
- 4 Perception
- 5 Internal snakse organs
- 6 Locomotion
- 6.1 "Flying" snakex snakes
- 7 Reproduction
- 8 Snake snaes bites
- 9 Venomous snakes
- 10 Evolution of Snakes
- 11 Snake snakkes charmers
- 12 Snake trapping
- 13 Human snakes on a plane consumption of snakes
- 14 Symbolism
- 14.1 Chinese snakes Zodiac
- 15 Films
- 16 See snake also
- 17 Notes
- 18 References
- 19 External links
The phylogeny snake identification of snakes is types of snakes poorly known due to the fact that snake skeletons are typically small and fragile, white snake making fossilization unlikely. It has however been generally agreed, on the basis of morphology, florida snakes that snakes descended from lizard-like ancestors. Recent research based on genetics and biochemistry confirms this; snakes form a venom clade with copperhead snake several extant lizard families.
Recent fossil evidence suggests that snakes directly evolved from burrowing lizards, either corn snake varanids or some other group. An early fossil snake, Najash rionegrina, was garter snake a two-legged burrowing animal with a sacrum, fully terrestrial. One extant analog of venomous snakes these putative ancestors is the earless monitor Lanthanotus of Borneo, although it also is snakes world semi-aquatic. As these ancestors became more king snake subterranean, they lost their limbs and became more streamlined for burrowing. Features such as the transparent, fused eyelids and loss corn snakes of external ears, according to this hypothesis, evolved to combat subterranean conditions (scratched corneas, copperhead snakes dirt in the ears). According new record for worlds largest snake to this hypothesis, snakes re-emerged onto the surface cobra starship snakes on a plane of the land much as they are today. Other primitive snakes are known to have possessed coral snake hindlimbs but lacked a direct connection of the pelvic bones to the snake eater vertebrae, including Haasiophis, Pachyrhachis and Eupodophis) which are slightly older than Najash.
Modern boas do poisonous snakes have vestigal hind limbs, tiny, clawed digits known as anal spurs and solid snake used to grasp during mating.
The alternative hypothesis, based on morphology, suggests that bull snake ancestors were related to mosasaurs — extinct aquatic reptiles from the Cretaceous — cobra snake which in turn are thought to have derived from varanid lizards. Under rattle snake this hypothesis, the fused, transparent eyelids of snakes are thought to have evolved to combat marine conditions (corneal water loss through osmosis), while rat snake the external ears were lost through disuse in garter snakes an aquatic environment, ultimately leading to an animal similar in appearance to sea snakes of today. In the Late Cretaceous, snakes on a plane cobra starship snakes re-colonized the land much like they are today. Fossil snake snakes on the plane remains are known from big snakes early Late Cretateous marine sediments, which is consistent with this hypothesis, particularly as they are older than the terrestrial Najash rionegrina. Similar milk snake skull structure; reduced/absent limbs; and other anatomical features found metal gear solid 3 snake eater in both mosasaurs and snakes lead to a positive cladistical correlation, rattle snakes though some features are also shared with varanids. Supposedly similar locomotion for both groups is also used as support texas snakes for this hypothesis. Genetic studies have indicated that snakes are not especially related to monitor lizards, garden snakes and snake pictures (it has been claimed) therefore not to mosasaurs, the proposed ancestor in the aquatic scenario of their evolution. However, there is more water snakes evidence linking mosasaurs black snake to snakes than to varanids. Fragmentary remains that have been found from the Jurassic and Early how to get rid of snakes Cretaceous indicate deeper fossil records for these groups, which may eventually refute either hypothesis.
The great diversity identifying snakes of modern snakes appeared in the Paleocene, probably correlated with the adaptive radiation of mammals following the extinction of the pictures of snakes snakes in florida dinosaurs.
In a recently published book, Global Warming: The Causes and Effects, information suggests that a rise snake bites in only a few degrees of the earth's temperature are causing snakes, a non-migratory animal, to create migratory patterns to more desirable garden snake climates.
All snakes are snake tattoo carnivorous, eating small animals including lizards and other snakes, rodents and other small mammals, birds, eggs or insects. Some snakes have a venomous black rat snake bite which they use to kill their prey before eating it. Other snakes anaconda snakes kill their prey by black snakes constriction. Still others swallow their prey whole and alive. Most snakes cottonmouth snake are very easy to feed in captivity, apart from a minority of species. snake cages Read more about snake food.
Snakes do not chew their food and have a very flexible lower jaw, the two pet snakes halves of which are not rigidly attached, and numerous other cold hearted snake joints in their skull (see snake skull), allowing them to open their king cobra snakes mouths wide enough to swallow their prey whole, even if it is larger in diameter than the snake snake bite itself. It is a common misconception that snakes actually dislocate snake tattoos their lower jaw to consume large prey.
After eating, snakes become torpid while the process of digestion takes place. Digestion is an intensive snakes on a plane soundtrack activity, especially after the consumption of very large prey. In species which feed king snakes only sporadically, michigan snakes the entire intestine enters a reduced state between meals to conserve energy, and the digestive system is 'up-regulated' to full snakes on plane capacity within 48 hours of snake eyes prey consumption. So much metabolic energy is involved in digestion that in Crotalus durissus, the Mexican rattlesnake, an increase of body temperature to as baby snakes much as 14 pennsylvania snakes degrees Celsius above the surrounding environment has been observed. Because of this, a snake snake woman disturbed after having eaten recently will often regurgitate its prey in order to be able to snake on a plane escape the perceived threat. However, when snakes on planes undisturbed, the digestive process is highly efficient, dissolving and absorbing everything but hair and claws, which are excreted mr snake along with uric acid waste. Snakes have been known to occasionally water snake die from trying to swallow an animal that is too big. eastern milk snake Snake digestive acids are unable to digest most plant matter, which passes through the digestive system mostly untouched.
Snakes do not normally black snake moan prey on people, but there are instances of small children being eaten by large northern water snake constrictors in the viper snake jungle
. While some particularly aggressive species exist, most will not attack humans rat snakes unless startled snake girl or injured, preferring instead to avoid contact. The majority of snakes are either non-venomous or possess venom that is not harmful to humans.
The skin snake drawings is covered in snake repellent scales. Most snakes use specialized belly scales to move, gripping surfaces. The brown snake body scales may be smooth, keeled, or granular. Their eyelids are transparent "spectacle" scales which remain permanently closed, called brille. They snake repellant shed their skin periodically. snake art Unlike other reptiles, this is done in one piece, like pulling off a sock, with the snake trouser snake rubbing its nose against something rough, like a rock, for instance, creating a rip in the skin around the snakes for sale nose and the cartoon snake mouth until the skin is completely removed. The primary purpose of shedding this is to grow; shedding also removes external parasites. This periodic snakes on a plane phone call renewal has led snake vore to the snake being a symbol of healing and medicine, as pictured in the Rod white snake here i go again of Asclepius. In "advanced" (Caenophidian) snakes, the broad belly scales and rows of dorsal scales snake eater mp3 correspond to the vertebrae, allowing scientists to count the vertebrae without dissection. If snake eating there is not enough humidity in the air while snakes snakes on a plane phone message are shedding their skin, it can be very dangerous for the snake, because the dry snakes on a plane review skin does not shed. Skin that remains attached to the snake can harbour diseases and parasites. A california king snake tail tip that is not removed can constrict as the snake grows, cutting off the blood supply snake eggs to the end of the tail causing black mamba snake it to drop off. A retained spectacle can cause the snake to become cobra snakes blind in the affected eye.
Thermographic image of a snake eating a mouse.
While snake vision is unremarkable (generally being best in arboreal species snake skin and worst in snakes on a plane mp3 burrowing species), it is able to detect movement. Some snakes, like the Asian vine snake game snake, have binocular vision. In most snakes, the lens moves back and forth within the snakes and ladders eyeball to focus. In addition to their eyes, some snakes (pit vipers, pythons, and snake charmer some boas) have infrared-sensitive receptors in deep grooves between the nostril and snake photos eye which allow them to "see" the radiated heat.
Snakes have snake river conspiracy no external ears, but they do have a bone called the quadrate under the north carolina snakes skin on either side of the head which focuses sound into the cochlea. Their sense of coral snakes hearing is most sensitive to frequencies around 200–300 Hz.
A snake smells by using its forked tongue to collect airborne particles georgia snakes then passing them to snake river mls the Jacobson's organ or the Vomeronasal organ in the mouth for examination. The fork in gopher snake the tongue gives the snake a sort of directional sense snake plant of smell. The part of the body which is in direct contact with the surface of the snakes on a plane trailer ground is very sensitive to vibration, thus a cotton mouth snake snake is able to sense other animals approaching.
The left lung is very snake river lodge and spa small or sometimes even absent, as snakes' tubular bodies require all of their organs to be long and thin. To accommodate snakes on a plain them all, only one lung is functional. This lung contains a vascularized anterior portion and deadly snakes a posterior portion which does snakes on a planebring it not function in gas exchange. This 'saccular lung' may be used to adjust buoyancy in some chicken snake aquatic snakes and its function remains metal gear solid snake eater unknown in terrestrial species. Also, many organs that are paired, such as kidneys or reproductive organs, are staggered within the body, grass snake with one located ahead of the other. The most primitive snakes, including boas and pythons, have anal common garter snake spurs, a pair of claws on snake boots either side of the cloaca which are used by the males for stimulation of females during mating.
Snakes utilize snakes on a train a variety of methods pet snake of movement which allows them substantial mobility in spite of eastern hognose snake their legless condition. All snakes are capable of lateral undulation, in which the body is flexed side-to-side, and the flexed areas propagate green snake posteriorly, giving the overall shape of a posteriorly propagating sine wave. In addition, largest snake all snakes are capable of concertina movement. This method of movement snake fish can be used to both climb trees and move through small tunnels. In the case baby copperhead snake of trees, the branch is grasped by the posterior portion of black racer snake the body, while the anterior portion is extended. The anterior portion then grasps the missouri snakes branch, and the posterior portion is pulled forward. In the case of tunnels, instead of grasping, virginia snakes the body loops are pressed against the tunnel walls to attain traction, but the maryland snakes motion snakes plane is otherwise similar. Another common method of locomotion is rectilinear locomotion, in which the longest snake snake remains straight and propels itself via a caterpillar-like motion of sea snakes its belly-muscles. This mode is usually only used by very large, heavy snakes, such as large pythons cobra starship snakes on a plane bring it and vipers. The most complex and interesting mode is sidewinding, an undulatory motion used to move across garder snake slippery mud or loose sand.
Not all snakes dwell on land; sea snakes live in shallow tropical seas.
Studies of giant snakes the motion and muscle activity of moving brown tree snake snakes have shed light on how each of these modes is achieved.
In terrestrial lateral undulation, posteriorly propagating unilateral waves drawings of snakes of eastern garter snake muscle contraction occur. The regions of muscle activity for each side extend from the most concave point on that side posteriorly to the most convex snakes on a plane lyrics side. ringneck snake Thus, when a point on the snake's body is maximally flexed to the right, the right muscles snake river real estate activate, bending it back to the left until it's maximally right-convex, at which point the right side muscles turn oklahoma snakes off, and the water moccasin snake left side muscles turn on. Speed is modulated primarily by alteration of frequency. Aquatic lateral undulation appears superficially similar, but the muscle snake farm activation pattern is different, with the regions of muscle white snake mp3 activity being 'shifted' posteriorly to where they would be big snake in terrestrial lateral undulation. The reasons for this difference are not fully understood.
Sidewinding, though it appears cartoon snakes complex and confusing, is actually a simple modification of terrestrial lateral undulation. At cobra starship - snakes on a plane the points of maximal flexion, the dorsalmost muscle group (traversospinalis group) activates, lifting that portion of the cobra starship - snakes on a plane bring it body over the ground, and resulting in hognose snake other portions of the body remaining in static contact. This mode is used to cross slick surfaces such as mud louisiana snakes flats and sand, and has nothing to do with thermoregulation, as is sometimes snake encyclopedia erroneously stated. Many milk snakes species of snake, including species commonly kept as pets and which do not usually encounter deserts or mud flats, will spiders and snakes sidewind when placed on a slick floor or tabletop and snake tongs enticed to move fast.
Concertina locomotion and rectilinear locomotion are less well understood. Studies of muscle activity have only been snakes of north carolina done for tunnel concertina timber rattle snake locomotion, which shows that the muscles are unilaterally active in static regions of bending in order to brace the snake against the tunnel walls. Rectilinear bushmaster snake is believed to rely on different muscles from the jake the snake roberts other modes; while they metal gear solid the twin snakes all rely on the large epaxial muscles, rectilinear locomotion seems to rely upon the sea snake small costocutaneous muscles. However, this has not been verified experimentally, due to the difficulties in working with these small muscles.
Several species snake trap of snake snakes on a plane movie have the ability to glide, all being in the genus Chrysopelea. They are quite capable at it, two headed snake able to travel as far as 13.7 metres through the air. They tend to pennsylvania snake identification make slithering motions to steer and help pine snake propel themselves along, propulsion being something unusual among the many gliding animals. This has contributed, in ancient times, to the belief in Wyrms (Legless, snake-like snake dancer dragons that could supposedly fly.)
A wide snake tattoo designs range of reproductive modes are used by snakes. black and yellow snakes All snakes employ internal fertilization, accomplished by means of paired, forked hemipenes, which are stored inverted in the male's tail. Most snakes lay different types of snakes eggs, and of those most species abandon them one eyed snake shortly after laying; however, some species are ovoviviparous and retain the eggs within rough green snake their bodies until they are almost ready to hatch. Recently, it has been confirmed that several snake feces species of snake are fully viviparous, nourishing their young through a snake women placenta as well as a yolk sac, highly taipan snake unusual among reptiles, or indeed anything else outside of placental mammals. Retention baby copperhead snakes of eggs and live birth are commonly, but not exclusively, associated with cold environments, as the retention of the young within the snakes of florida female allows her to control their temperature more effectively than if snakes of virginia the developing young were in external eggs.
Documented deaths resulting snakes on a plane music video from snake bites are uncommon in most areas of the world. bring it snakes on a plane Only about 450 species of snakes are venomous (with only about 250 that are able to kill a human), and california snakes among the 7,000 Americans corn snakes for sale bitten by venomous snakes every year, fewer than fifteen die (lightning kills fierce snake more). See snakebites for more information, including prevention of snake bites and first aid treatment.
- See also: Snake venom
A venomous snake is fox snake a snake that uses modified saliva, venom, delivered snake attacks through fangs in its mouth, to immobilize or kill its snake fangs prey. (In contrast, most non-venomous species are constrictors which suffocate their prey.) Snake venom can baby rattle snakes be either a neurotoxin or a hemotoxin. Neurotoxins attack the nervous system, while hemotoxins attack the north american snakes circulatory system. Venomous snakes include several families of snake anatomy snakes and do not constitute a formal classification group used snake eye in taxonomy.
If a snakebite should occur, sucking the snake food poison from the wound is not to correct course to take. This will merely result in the poison entering your bloodstream through snakes of texas the esophogus.
Venomous snakes that uses heomotoxins usually snake clipart have their fangs to secrete the poison in the front of snakes on a plane song their mouths, making it easier for them to inject the poison into southern ringneck snake their victims. Snakes that use neurotoxins, such as the highly venomous mangroove snake, have their fangs located in the back of their cobra snake drawings mouths, with the fangs curled backwards. largest snake in the world This makes it bot difficult for the snake to use its poison and for scientists to milk them.
Evolution of Snakes
A loose joint most venomous snakes developed snake venom in the bottom jaw of even the most primitive extinct [snakes.http://coloherp.org/cb-news/Vol-31/cbn-0410/SnakeEvolution.html]
Venomous snakes are generally classified in tube snake boogie four taxonomic families:
- Elapids - cobras, king cobras, kraits, mambas, copperheads, and coral snakes.
- Viperids - vipers, rattlesnakes, copperheads/cottonmouths, adders and bushmasters.
- Colubrids - georgia snake identification boomslangs, tree snakes, vine snakes, mangrove snakes, and many others, kansas snakes though not all colubrids are venomous.
- Hydrophiidae - sea snakes
A snake Charmer in Kochi, India
In some parts texas indigo snakes of the world, especially in India and Pakistan, snake charming eastern king snake is a roadside show performed by a charmer. In this, the snake charmer carries a basket that contains a snake which he seemingly indigo snake charms by playing snake away tunes from his flute-like musical instrument, to which the snake responds. However, snakes' sense of hearing is not very sensitive to the range these arms are snakes of the charmer's instrument, so they may colorado snakes not be able to hear the music at all. Researchers have pointed out that many of my pet snake these snake charmers are good sleight-of-hand artists. The snake moves corresponding to the flute movement anaconda snake and the vibrations from the tapping of the charmer's foot which is not eastern ribbon snake noticed by the public. They rarely catch their snakes and the snakes are either nonvenomous gray rat snake or defanged cobras. Sometimes these people exploit the fear of snakes identify snakes by releasing snakes into the neighbourhood and then offering to rid ribbon snake the residence of snakes. Other snake charmers also have a snake snakes of alabama and mongoose show, where both the animals have a mock fight; however, this snakes on a plane phone is not very common, as the snakes, as well as the mongooses, may be alabama snakes seriously injured or killed.
Snake charming as banded water snake a profession is now dissuaded in India as a contribution to forest & snake conservation. In fact in some places in India snake charming garder snakes is banned by law.
Despite the existence of snake charmers, snake oil there have also been professional snakes all types snake catchers or wranglers. The tribals of "Irulas" from Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in India have been practicing this art for snakes on a plan generations. They generally don't use gimmicks and with the help of a simple snake head fish stick catch the snakes from the fields or houses. They are also known to snakes of north america eat some of the snakes they catch and are very useful in rat extermination south carolina snakes in the villages. Their knowledge of snakes and their behaviour here i go again white snake is uncanny. Modern day snake trapping involves a herpetologist using a long stick with a "V" king cobra snake shaped end. Some like northern brown snake the late Steve Irwin prefer to catch them using bare hands.
At least one tribe of natives uses northern ringneck snake a specialized form of snake catching as a rite of passage to manhood.
The young man of interest will wrap his leg heavily snake videos in some type of cloth all the way to the inseam. He will then stick his leg in a burrow containing a large snakes in georgia python, typically a 10 most poisonous snakes reticulated python. After the snake swallows most of his leg several other members of the tribe will pull him out of the hole along animated snake bull snakes with the snake. The snake is then killed and the man's leg removed jimmy kimmel snake bite from the snake. These snakes can be over 20 ft long and it is possible for the man large snakes to have his leg dislocated. The scent of a prey animal may be used to help life cycle of a snake convince the snake to swallow the leg.
Human consumption of snakes
In some cultures, the consumption snake babe of snakes is snake species acceptable or even considered a delicacy, prized for its alleged pharmaceutical effect of warming the heart. Western cultures snakes on a plane bring it lyrics document the consumption of snake under extreme circumstances of hunger. However, human consumption of sneaky snake snake meat, especially when eaten raw, may lead to dangerous parasitic infections in humans. Rattlesnake texas snake identification meat is eaten in the western United States somewhat commonly. In Asian countries drinking the blood of wisconsin snakes australian snakes snakes, particularly the cobra, is believed to increase sexual virility. The blood is drained while the snake head cobra is still alive when possible, and is usually mixed with some form of liquor to improve the taste.
In Egyptian history, the snake occupies a primary role with the fear of snakes Nile cobra adorning the crown of the pharaoh in ancient times. It green tree snake was worshipped as one of the Gods and was also snake dance used for sinister purposes: murder of an adversary and ritual suicide (Cleopatra).
In Greek Mythology snakes are often associated snake facts with deadly and dangerous antagonists. The 9 headed viper snakes Hydra Hercules defeated and the three Gorgon sisters are literary worm snake examples. Medusa was one of the three Gorgon sisters who Perseus defeated. Medusa is described as a hideous animated snakes mortal, with snakes instead of hair and the power buy gourds, snake online to turn men to stone with her green snakes gaze.
Two medical symbols involving snakes that are still used today are Bowl of Hygieia, symbolizing pharmacy, and the Caduceus and Rod of large snake Asclepius, which are symbols denoting medicine in general.
India is often called the land snake insertion of snakes and is steeped in tradition regarding snakes. Snakes are worshipped snake traps as gods even today with many women pouring snakes of indiana milk on snake pits (despite snakes' aversion for milk). The cobra is seen on the neck of Shiva and Vishnu is wild snakes depicted often as sleeping only on a 7 headed snake. There are also biggest snake several temples in India bore snake solely for cobras sometimes called Nagraj (King of Snakes) and it is believed that snakes are symbols of fertility. There is a Hindu festival dangerous snakes called Nagpanchami each year on which day snakes are venerated liquid snake and prayed to.
In Christianity the nc snakes snake makes its infamous appearance in the first book (Genesis) of snake necklace the Bible when a snake appears before the first couple Adam and Eve and snake river resort tempts them with the forbidden fruit. It is also seen in Exodus when Moses, as a sign of God's power, turns his stick tiger snake into a snake; snakes are similarly produced by the pharaoh's magic-practicing priests, but baby garter snake Moses' snake devours them. Later best snakes for pets Moses made Nehushtan, a bronze snake on a pole that when looked at build a snake cage cured the people of bites from the snakes that plagued them in the desert. Jesus exotic snakes instucted his disciples to be be as shrewd as snakes and as innocent as doves.
The Ouroboros is a symbol that is girls with snakes associated with many life cycle of snakes different religions and customs, and is also claimed to be related to Alchemy. The Ouroboros red racer snake or Oroboros is a snake manifesting its own tail in red rat snake a clock-wise direction (from the head to the tail) in the shape of snake eats alligator a circle, representing manifestation of one's own life and rebirth, leading to immortality. The snake skeleton Ouroboros is also associated with the popular manga, Fullmetal Alchemist snake swallowing or Hagane no Renkinjutsushi by Hiromu Arakawa.
Snake belongs to one of the 12 celestial animals of Chinese Zodiac, in the Chinese calendar.
In the snakes on a plane- cobra starship chinese zodiac, water moccasin snakes people born in the year of the snake (1917, 1929, 1941, 1953, 1965, 1977, 1989, 2001) are meant to worlds largest snake be deep. They say little and possess albino corn snake great wisdom. They never have to worry about money; they are financially fortunate. Snake people are often quite vain, selfish, and a bit ball python snakes stingy. Yet cobra starship snakes they have tremendous sympathy for others and try to help those less fortunate. Snake colon snake people tend to overdo, since they have doubts about other people's judgment and prefer to rely on themselves. They drain snake are determined in whatever they do and hate to fail. Although calm on the surface, they gardner snakes are intense and passionate. Snake people are usually good-looking and sometimes have marital mgs3 snake eater problems because they are fickle. They are most compatible with the Ox and snake bracelet Rooster.
- Snakes on a Plane (2006)
- Venom (2005)
- Harry Potter and snake vore story the Goblet of Fire (2005)
- Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (2002)
- Anacondas: The snakes on a plane message Hunt for the Blood Orchid (2004)
- Anaconda (1997)
- Boa (2000)
- Python (2000)
- Python II
- Boa vs. tennessee snakes Python
- Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981)
- The Jungle Book (1967)
- King Cobra
- Kill Bill Volume 1 and 2
- Snake King
- Ssss snake
- Snake teeth
- Snake venom
- Snake scales
- Snake skeleton
- Snake (Zodiac)
- Exploding snake
- Snake worship
- Snake Shyam
- Harmful snakes
- List of metal gear solid snake Serpentes families
- Classification of snakes
- ^ The thermogenesis of digestion in rattlesnakes. Journal of Experimental Biology 207 pp. 579-585. The Company of rainforest snakes Biologists (2004). Retrieved on 2006-05-26, 2006.
- Romulus Whitaker (English snake eater ukulele edition); Tamil translation by O.Henry Francis (1996). நம்மை சுட்ரியுள்ள பாம்புகள் (Snakes around us, Tamil). National Book Trust. ISBN 81-237-1905-1.
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