- For the temperture song by Sean Paul, see Temperature (song)
In thermodynamics, temperature is a measure of the tendency temprature of an object or system to spontaneously give up energy. temerature Temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of "hot" and "cold", in which tempreature something that is hotter has the greater temperature. Temperature arises from the temparature random microscopic motions of matter, where temperature is related to the average teperature energy of these microscopic motions. The concept of temperature, defined as tempertaure a tension associated with temperatuer entropy, follows from the zeroth law of thermodynamics.
Temperature is measured with thermometers that may be temperatue calibrated to a variety of temperature scales. Throughout the world temperatur (except for the U.S.), the Celsius scale is used for most temperature measuring purposes. The entire scientific world (the temperatura U.S. included) measures temperature in kelvins on the thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale and tempeature in Celsius. temperaure Many engineering fields in the U.S., especially high-tech ones, also use the kelvin and Celsius scales. The temperatrue bulk of the U.S. however, (its lay people, industry, meteorology, and government) relies upon the Fahrenheit tempereture scale. Other engineering fields in the U.S. also rely tempearture upon the Rankine scale when working in thermodynamic-related disciplines temprrature such as combustion.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Details
- 3 The temperatire role of temperature in nature
- 4 Temperature temperatyre measurement
- 4.1 Units of temperature
- 4.2 Negative tempersture temperatures
- 4.3 Articles about temperature ranges:
- 5 Comparison of temperautre temperature scales
- 6 Theoretical foundation of temperature
- 6.1 Zeroth-law definition temperaturre of temperature
- 6.2 Temperature in gases
- 6.3 Temperature emperature of the vacuum
- 6.4 Second-law temeprature definition of temperature
- 7 See temperrature also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Temperature is a temperaturee measure of the average energy contained in the microscopic temperaature degrees of freedom of a system. For example, in an ideal gas, the relevant degrees tamperature of freedom are translational, rotational, and vibrational temperatre motion of the individual molecules. In this case, temperature is proportional to the mean kinetic energy of the constituent atoms. But in more complicated tempetature systems, magnetic, electronic, photonic, or other exotic degrees of tenperature freedom can play a significant role in determining temperature.
Thermal motion tepmerature is the reason gasses have pressure, since the particles tmperature in the gas collide with the walls of the container and exert an outward force. temoerature Although very specialized laboratory equipment is required to directly detect temperayure thermal motions, thermal collisions by atoms or molecules with small temperatuure particles suspended in a fluid produces Brownian motion that can be seen with an temperatute ordinary microscope. The thermal motions of atoms are very fast and temperatures close to absolute yemperature zero are required to directly observe them. For instance, when scientists at temperarure the NIST achieved a record-setting cold temperature of 700 nK (billionths of temmperature a kelvin) in 1994, they used optical lattice laser equipment temperatture to adiabatically cool caesium atoms. They then turned off the entrapment lasers and temperature directly measured atom velocities of 7 mm per second in order to calculate their temperature.
Molecules, such sean paul temperature as O2, have more degrees of freedom than single atoms: they can have temperature sean paul rotational and vibrational motions temperature conversion as well as translational motion. An increase in temperature will cause the sean paul - temperature average translational energy to increase. It will also cause the energy associated rectal temperature with vibrational and rotational modes to increase. Thus a diatomic gas, with extra degrees of freedom like sean paul- temperature rotation and vibration, will require a higher energy input to change the temperature by a temperature mp3 certain amount, i.e. it will have a world temperatures higher heat capacity than a monatomic gas.
The process of cooling temperature converter involves removing energy from a system. When there is no more energy able to be removed, temperature - sean paul the system is said temperature conversions to be at absolute zero, which is the point on the thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale where all kinetic motion in the temperature by sean paul particles comprising matter ceases and they are at complete rest in the temperature lyrics “classic” (non-quantum mechanical) sense. By definition, absolute zero body temperature is a temperature of precisely 0 kelvins (–273.15 °C basal body temperature or –459.67 °F).
The formal properties of temperature are studied in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The temperature of a system sean paul temperature mp3 at thermodynamic equilibrium is defined by a relation between the amount high temperature connector of heat δQ incident ibm multiprise 2003 temperature on the system during an infinitesimal quasistatic transformation, and the variation δS of its entropy during this transformation.
Contrary to aquatic temperature mapping entropy and heat, whose microscopic definitions are valid sean paul, temperature even far away from thermodynamic equilibrium, temperature can only be defined at thermodynamic equilibrium, temperature conversion chart or local thermodynamic equilibrium (see average temperatures below).
As a system receives heat its temperature rises, similarly a loss normal body temperature of heat from the system tends to decrease its temperature (at the - temperature controller uncommon - exception of negative temperature, see below).
When two systems are at the same temperature, high temperature fitting no heat transfer occurs between them. When a temperature difference does exist, heat high temperature cable will tend to move from the higher-temperature system to the lower-temperature system, until they are at temperature switch thermal equilibrium. This high temperature rfid heat transfer may occur via conduction, convection or radiation (see heat for cpu temperature additional discussion of the various mechanisms of heat transfer).
Temperature is also related to the amount clothing high temperature protective of internal energy and enthalpy of a system. The higher the temperature of a system, the higher high temperature rfid tags its internal temperature sean energy and enthalpy are.
Temperature is an intensive property of a system, meaning that it does not high temperature load cell depend on the system size or the amount of average monthly temperatures material in the system. Other intensive properties include pressure and density. By contrast, mass and volume weather temperatures las vegas are extensive properties, and depend on the amount of material in the system.
The role temperature control shipping of temperature in nature
Temperature plays an important role in almost all fields of science, temperatures around the world including physics, chemistry, and biology.
Many physical refrigerator temperature properties of materials including the phase (solid, liquid, gaseous or temperature history plasma), density, solubility, vapor pressure, and electrical conductivity depend on the temperature. temperatures Temperature also plays an important role in determining the holiday temperatures rate and extent to which chemical reactions occur. This is one reason why the human body temperature control carriers has several elaborate mechanisms for maintaining the temperature at room temperature 37 °C, since temperatures only a few degrees higher can result in harmful reactions with serious consequences. Temperature also controls the type hottest world temperature and quantity of thermal radiation emitted from a surface. One application temperatures worldwide of this effect is the incandescent average temperatures for winter sun light bulb, in which a tungsten filament is electrically heated to a temperature at which significant quantities of europe temperature visible light are emitted.
Temperature-dependence of the speed of sound in air high temperature paint c, density of air ρ and acoustic impedance Z vs. fieldturf temperatures hot days temperature °C
|Impact of temperature on speed of sound, air density and ocean temperatures acoustic impedance
|T in °C
||c in m/s
||ρ in average world temperatures kg/m³
||Z in N·s/m³
Main article: Temperature measurement, see also The holiday weather temperatures International Temperature Scale.
Temperature measurement using modern scientific temperature sensor thermometers and temperature scales goes back at least as far as the early 18th century, when Gabriel Fahrenheit average daily temperature adapted a thermometer (switching to mercury) and a scale both developed by Ole Christensen taking rectal temperature Rømer. Fahrenheit's scale is still in use, alongside the Celsius scale temperature sensitive packaging solution pharmaceutical and the Kelvin scale.
Units of majorca temperature october temperature
The basic unit of temperature (symbol: T) in the International System of Units (SI) is the kelvin rectal temperature story (K). One kelvin is formally defined as exactly 1/273.16 of the temperature of the water temperature triple point of water (the point at coldest temperature in world which water, ice and water vapor exist in equilibrium). This puts the freezing point of water (which cannot be measured spain temperatures with high precision) and the zero temperature barcelona point of the Celsius scale at 273.15, not 273.16. The convert temperature (unattainable) temperature 0 K is called absolute zero and corresponds to the daily temperatures point at which the molecules and atoms have the least possible thermal energy. An important unit european temperatures of temperature in theoretical physics is the Planck temperature (1.4 × 1032 K).
In the sea surface temperature field of servers network equipment safe temperature plasma physics, because of the high temperatures encountered and the electromagnetic nature of the phenomena involved, it is customary temperatures in spain to express temperature in electronvolts sean paul temperature lyrics (eV) or kiloelectronvolts (keV), where 1 eV = 11,605 K. In the study of QCD matter stories of taking a temperature rectally one routinely meets temperatures of the order of a few hundred MeV, equivalent to about 1012 K.
For everyday applications, taking temperature it is water boiling temperature often convenient to use the Celsius scale, in which 0 °C corresponds to the temperature at which water freezes average daily temperatures and 100 °C corresponds to the boiling point of water at sea level. In this scale temperature controllers a temperature difference of 1 degree is the same as a 1 temperature in malaga spain K temperature difference, so the scale wet bulb temperature is essentially the same as the Kelvin scale, but average temperature offset by the temperature at which water freezes (273.15 K). Thus the following equation can be used to convert sean paul: temperature from degrees Celsius to kelvins.
In the paris temperature United States, the Fahrenheit scale is widely used. On this scale the freezing point of water corresponds to 32 lyrics to temperature °F and the boiling point to 212 °F. weather archives temperature The following formula can be used to convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius:
See temperature today's temperature conversion formulas for conversions between most temperature global temperatures scales.
- See main article: Negative temperature.
For some systems and specific definitions of temperature, it sean pual temperature is possible to obtain a negative temperature. sleep temperature A system with a negative temperature is not colder than absolute zero, but rather it is, in a sense, hotter than infinite taking a teenager's rectal temperature temperature.
Articles about temperature ranges:
- 10−12 K = 1 picokelvin (pK)
- 10−9 K = 1 nanokelvin temperature conversion table (nK)
- 10−6 K = 1 microkelvin (µK)
- 10−3 K = 1 millikelvin (mK)
- 100 K = 1 kelvin
- 101 K coldest temperature ever recorded = 10 kelvins
- 102 K = 100 kelvins
- 103 K = 1,000 kelvins = 1 kilokelvin (kK)
- 104 K different temperatures around the world lesson plan = 10,000 kelvins = 10 kK
- 105 K = freezer temperature 100,000 kelvins = 100 kK
- 106 K = 1 megakelvin (MK)
- 109 K high temperature resin = 1 gigakelvin (GK)
- 1012 K = 1 terakelvin (TK)
See Orders of ocean temperature magnitude (temperature).
Comparison of temperature scales
Comparison of temperature scales
|Lowest recorded surface temperature on Earth
(Vostok, rectal temperature women Antarctica - July 21, 1983)
|Fahrenheit's ice/salt mixture
|Ice melts (at standard pressure)
|Average surface temperature data logger temperature on temperature on the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin Earth
|Average human body temperature ¹
|Highest recorded surface temperature on Earth
(Al 'Aziziyah, Libya - September 13, 1922)
|Water boils (at temperatures for countries abroad standard pressure)
|The surface of the Sun
¹ Normal human body temperature is 36.8 °C ±0.7 °C, rotating temperature telemetry or 98.2 °F ±1.3 °F. The commonly given value 98.6 °F is cyprus temperature simply the exact conversion of the nineteenth-century German standard of 37 °C. Since human body temperature it does not list an acceptable upright freezer temperature settings range, it could therefore be said to have excess (invalid) precision. Here's a list of various world hottest temperature record measurements.
Some numbers in this table have been rounded off.
Theoretical foundation of temperature
Zeroth-law definition of temperature
While most people have a basic understanding of the concept average temperatures for majorca of temperature, its formal definition is europe temperature averages rather complicated. Before jumping to a formal definition, let us consider the concept of thermal equilibrium. high temperature relays If two closed systems with fixed volumes holiday destination temperatures are brought together, so that they are in thermal contact, changes may take place in the properties holiday sun temperature of both systems. These changes are due to the how does temperature affects battery life transfer of heat between the systems. When a state is reached in which no pentium m maximum temperature further changes occur, the systems are in thermal equilibrium.
Now a basis spanish temperatures for the definition of temperature can temperature convertion be obtained from the so-called zeroth law of thermodynamics which states that if two arctic temperatures systems, A and B, are in thermal equilibrium and a third system C is in thermal equilibrium with system A average temperature around the world then systems B and C will also be in average temperature spain thermal equilibrium (being in thermal equilibrium is a transitive climate temperature relation; moreover, it is an equivalence relation). This is an empirical fact, based on observation rather than cpu temperature monitor theory. Since A, B, and C are all in thermal equilibrium, it is exhaust gas temperature reasonable to say each of these systems shares a common mercruiser temperature sensor value of some property. We call this monthly temperatures in london property temperature.
Generally, it is not convenient to place any two arbitrary systems in thermal contact to see rotating temperature if they are in thermal equilibrium sean paul/ temperature and thus have the same temperature. Also, it would only provide an ordinal scale.
Therefore, it is useful to establish a temperature in holiday destination temperature scale based the difference between heat energy and temperature on the properties of some reference system. Then, a measuring device can what is the temperature in paris, france be calibrated based on the properties of the reference system and used to measure the temperature of other attic temperature systems. One such reference system is a average monthly temperatures us cities and states fixed quantity of gas. The ideal gas law indicates that the product of the pressure and volume (P · average temperatures in spain V) of a gas is directly proportional to cayman island average temperature the temperature:
where 'T is temperature, n is the number of moles of gas and R is the florida average temperatures gas constant. Thus, one can define lowest temperature ever recorded a scale for temperature based on the corresponding pressure and volume of the gas: temperature telemetry the temperature in kelvins is the pressure in pascals temperatures of cities around the world of one mole of gas in a container of one world temperature data cubic metre, divided by 8.31... In practice, such a gas thermometer is not very convenient, but world temperatures in november other measuring instruments can be calibrated to this scale.
Equation 1 indicates that for a fixed volume country temperatures of dog temperature gas, the pressure increases with increasing temperature. Pressure is just a measure of the force applied by the gas on the walls of exhaust temperature the container and is related to the energy of high temperature insulation the system. Thus, we can see that an increase in temperature jersey temperatures corresponds to an increase in the thermal energy of the system. When lincoln temperature in uk two systems of differing temperature are placed in temperature sender unit thermal contact, the temperature of the hotter system decreases, indicating that heat is leaving that system, while water temperature on the mississippi river the cooler system is gaining heat and increasing in temperature. Thus heat always moves world weather temperature from a region average monthly europe temperatures of high temperature to a region of lower temperature and it is the temperature difference europe temperature map that drives the heat transfer between the two systems.
Temperature in monthly temperature in spain gases
For a monatomic ideal gas the temperature is related to the translational motion or average speed of the atoms. The outside air temperature gauge kinetic theory temperature scales of gases uses statistical mechanics to relate this motion to the average kinetic energy of atoms and molecules in the system. This what is the temperature in barcelona average energy is independent winter temperatures in majorca of particle mass, which seems counterintuitive to many people. Although the temperature is related to the average kinetic energy of australia average temperature the particles in body basal temperature a gas, each particle has its own energy which may or canada temperature may not correspond to the average. However, after an examination of some coldest temperatures in united states basic physics equations it makes perfect sense. The second law of thermodynamics states that any two destination temperature guide given systems when interacting with each other will later reach the same average energy. Temperature is a ideal freezer temperature measure related to the average kinetic intake air temperature sensor energy of a system. The formula for the kinetic energy of majorca temperature april an atom is:
(Note that a calculation of the kinetic energy of scotland temperature high low october a more complicated object, such as a molecule, is slightly more involved. time and temperature Additional degrees of freedom are available, so molecular rotation or vibration must be included.)
Thus, particles of greater baby temperature mass gran canaria temperatures (say a neon atom relative to a hydrogen molecule) will move slower than lighter counterparts, but will have the same average energy. heat and temperature This average energy is right temperature independent of the mass because of the nature of a gas, all particles are in random motion temperature by shean paul with collisions with other gas molecules, solid objects that may be in the area temperature monitors and the container itself (if temperatures in portugal there is one). A visual illustration of this from Oklahoma State University makes the point more weather temperature in costa brava clear. Particles with different mass have different velocity distributions, but wet bulb globe temperature the average kinetic energy is the same because of the ideal gas law. In a gas the distribution current world temperatures of energy (and global temperature data records thus speeds) of the particles corresponds to the Boltzmann distribution.
Temperature of the vacuum
The temperature of an groundwater temperature object is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the molecules monthly temperatures in greece in it. In a pure vacuum, there are no molecules. There is nothing to measure the kinetic monthly temperatures in thailand energy of, and temperature is undefined. If a thermometer were monthly temperatures in turkey placed in a vacuum, the reading would be a measurement of the internal temperature pentium m temperature of the thermometer, tanzania temperatures not of the vacuum which surrounds it.
All objects emit black body radiation. Over time, a thermometer in a pure temperature measurement vacuum will radiate temperature of the sun away thermal energy, decreasing in temperature indefinitely until it reaches the zero-point energy limit.
In practice, alicante temperature there is no such thing as a pure vacuum average monthly temperature for spain since there will always be photons associated with the black body radiation average water temperature october potomac of the walls of the vacuum. A thermometer orbiting the Earth can easily absorb energy from sunlight faster barcelona temperature than it can radiate it away. This can lead filet mignon roast temperature to a dramatic temperature increase.
A thermometer isolated from solar radiation (in highest temperature on earth the shade of a larger body, for example) is still exposed to Cosmic microwave background radiation. In this case, the temperature will home temperature alarms change infant temperature until the rate of energy loss and gain are in equilibrium. At this point, the thermometer will have a october temperatures for world temperature of 2.725 K, which is often referred past weather temperatures to as the temperature of space.
Second-law definition of temperature
In the previous section plumbing torches brazing high temperature fuel temperature was defined in terms of temperature control the Zeroth Law of thermodynamics. It is also possible to define temperature in terms temperature in alicante of the second law of thermodynamics, which deals with entropy. Entropy is a measure of the disorder temperature in baguio, philippines in a system. The second law states that any process will result in either no temperature in barcelona change or a net increase in temperature in barcelona in celsius the entropy of the universe. This can be understood in temperature in marbella terms of probability. Consider a series of coin tosses. A perfectly ordered system would be one in temperature logger which every coin toss would come up either heads or tails. For temperature remix any number of coin tosses, there is only one combination of outcomes corresponding to temperature sensors this situation. On the other hand, there are multiple combinations that can result in temperatures bora bora disordered or mixed systems, where temperatures for magaluf some fraction are heads and the rest tails. As the number of coin tosses increases, the number of temperatures in majorca combinations corresponding to imperfectly ordered systems increases. For vivarium temperature control a very large number of coin tosses, the number of combinations corresponding to ~50% heads and ~50% warm temperature tails dominates and obtaining an outcome significantly different from ampacity temperature rise 50/50 becomes extremely unlikely. Thus the system annual temperature naturally progresses to a state of maximum disorder or entropy.
We previously stated that temperature controls the flow of beef roast temperature heat between two systems and we have just shown that the universe, and we cpu temperature software would glass firing temperatures expect any natural system, tends to progress so as to maximize entropy. Thus, we would expect there to be some relationship between high temperature roast temperature and la crosse technology tx3u wireless temperature sensor with entropy. In order to find this relationship let's first consider the relationship between mars average temperature heat, work and temperature. A heat engine is a device for converting heat into mechanical work and analysis of the Carnot monthly temperatures in india heat engine provides the necessary relationships we seek. The rectal temperature taking work from a heat engine corresponds to the difference relation ship of wind direction and air temperature between the heat put into the system at the high temperature, qH and the heat ejected at the low temperature, sean paul + temperature qC. The efficiency is the work sean paul - temperature mp3 divided by the heat put into the system or:
where wcy is temperature loggers the work done per cycle. We see that the efficiency depends only on qC/qH. Because what is temperature qC and qH correspond to heat transfer at the temperatures TC and TH, respectively, average temperature countries world qC/qH should be some function of these temperatures:
Carnot's theorem states that all average temperatures american cities reversible engines operating between the same heat reservoirs beef cooking roast temperature are equally efficient. Thus, body temperature regulation a heat engine operating between T1 and T3 must have the same efficiency as one consisting of two convert temperatures cycles, one between T1 and T2, and the second between T2 and high temperature coatings T3. This can only be the case if:
- q13 = high temperature plastics f(T1,T3) = f(T1,T2)f(T2,T3)
Since the first function is independent of T2, this temperature must cancel on shaun paul temperature the right side, meaning temperature in africa f(T1,T3) is of the form g(T1)/g(T3) (i.e. f(T1,T3) = f(T1,T2)f(T2,T3) = g(T1)/g(T2)· g(T2)/g(T3) = g(T1)/g(T3)), where g is a function of a single temperature. temperature in malaga We can now choose temperature in malaga in october a temperature scale with the property that:
Substituting Equation 4 back into Equation 2 gives a relationship for the efficiency ambient temperature in terms of temperature:
Notice that asheville nc annual maximum and minimum temperature data for TC = 0 K the efficiency buy temperature controlled storage online is 100% and that efficiency becomes greater than 100% below 0 K. Since an efficiency greater than converting temperatures 100% violates the first law of thermodynamics, this corvair oil temperature implies that 0 K is the minimum possible temperature. In fact the lowest temperature ever obtained in a macroscopic system effect of temperature on glue strength was 20 nK, which was achieved in 1995 at NIST. Subtracting electronics day time temperature the right hand side of Equation 5 from the middle portion and rearranging gives:
where the fevers temperatures children negative sign indicates heat ejected from the system. This hawaii average temperature relationship suggests the existence of a state function, S, defined by:
where the kelvin temperature subscript indicates a reversible process. The change of this state lyrics to temperature by sean paul function around any cycle is zero, as is necessary for any state function. This neptune- temperature function corresponds to the entropy of the system, which we described previously. office temperature We can rearranging Equation 6 to get a roast beef cooking temperature new definition for temperature in terms of entropy and heat:
For a steam temperature system, where entropy S may be a function temperature sean paul mp3 S(E) of its energy E, the temperature T is given by:
The reciprocal of the temperature temperature sensors intel d865glc is the rate of increase of entropy with energy.
- Absolute zero
- Body temperature (Thermoregulation)
- Color temperature temperature song (black body radiation)
- Heat conduction
- Maxwell's demon
- Thermodynamic (absolute) temperature
- Triple point
- Wet Bulb Globe temperature switches Temperature
|Meteorological data and variables
Atmospheric pressure | CAPE | CIN | Dew point | 'dual temperature wine refrigerator' Heat index | Humidex | Humidity | Pot T | Sea at what temperature does water boil surface temperature | Temperature | Theta-e | Visibility | Vorticity | Wind chill
- Kroemer, Herbert; Kittel, Charles (1980). Thermal Physics (2nd ed.). W. H. Freeman Company. ISBN 0-7167-1088-9.
Look up Temperature in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
- An elementary introduction to temperature aimed at a middle school audience
- Why do we have so many temperature scales?
- A Brief History of Temperature Measurement
- Temperature units online conversion
Categories: Temperature | Heat | Physical quantity | Thermodynamics | Atmospheric thermodynamics