For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation).
Fossil range: Triassic - Recent
"Chelonia" from turles Ernst Haeckel's turtels Artforms of Nature, 1904
See tutles text for families.
Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of trutles whose body is shielded by a tuttles special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. The yurtles order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species, the earliest turtles being urtles known from the early Triassic Period, making turtles one of the oldest reptile groups, turtes and a much more ancient group than the lizards and snakes. About 300 species are alive turtls today. Some species of turtles are highly endangered.
- 1 Turtle, tortoise, or terrapin?
- 2 Evolution
- 3 Physical Description
- 3.1 Neck turtlles folding
- 3.2 Head
- 3.3 Shell
- 3.4 Skin tuurtles and Moulting
- 3.5 Limbs
- 4 Order turltes Testudines - turtles, tortoises, and terrapins
- 5 See turtles also
- 6 Further reading
- 7 External links
Turtle, tortoise, or terrapin?
In British sea turtles English it is ninja turtles normal to describe these reptiles as turtles, terrapins, or tortoises depending on whether they live sea turtle in the sea, in fresh water, or on land, respectively. Thus the green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas, is box turtles considered a turtle ; the red-eared slider, Trachemys scripta elegans, a terrapin ; and the eastern box turtle, types of turtles Terrapene carolina carolina, a tortoise .
In American English it snapping turtle is common to refer to all freshwater chelonians as turtles. Ocean-going species are sea turtles, and the turtles members of box turtle the family Testudinidae, such as the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus), are considered tortoises. "Terrapin" is turtle tattoo reserved for the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin), a North American species whose name is derived from the Algonquian word turtle tattoos for this animal,  though the average speaker would simply refer to it as snapping turtles a turtle.
There are no fully-terrestrial forms in pet turtles Australia; therefore, speakers of Australian English tend to use turtle for marine species alligator snapping turtle and tortoise for freshwater species. This confusing nomenclature is changing as recent publications painted turtle have used turtle for both marine and freshwater species green sea turtle .
The word chelonian, an umbrella term covering turtles, tortoises, and terrapins, is increasingly turtle pictures popular among scientists, conservationists, hobbyists and veterinarians working with these animals. It is based on the Greek word ninja turtle χελώνα ( /çeˈlona/, chelone ), meaning tortoise, and is used, for painted turtles example, by the Chelonian Research Foundation.
Geoffroys side-necked turtle (Phrynops geoffroanus
) lives in tropical pools and lakes in cartoon turtles South America
The first turtles are believed to have existed in the Mesozoic, around 200 million years cartoon turtle ago. Their exact ancestry is disputed. It was believed turtles for sale that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which green sea turtles includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. All anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant franklin the turtle amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the tribal turtle zygomatic arch). Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian turtle care period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles).
However, it red eared slider turtles was recently suggested that the anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to loggerhead turtle reversion rather than to anapsid descent. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed baby turtles turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. All molecular studies have strongly upheld happy together the turtles this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to archosauria. Re-analysis of prior phylogenies sea turtle tattoo suggests that they classified eastern box turtle turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did free turtle clipart not sample fossil and extant taxa broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. Future analyses may turtle bay show the turtles to be relatives of the turtle beach placodonts.
A new phylogenetic analysis agrees with prior analyses nesting turtles with pareiasaurs within the much the turtles happy together larger clade, Lepidosauromorpha. The closest pareiasaur to turtles appears to be a pictures of turtles rarely-studied form, Stephanospondylus. Indeed turtles are related to other reptiles turtle island without temporal openings. They are also closer to lizards than they are to archosaurormophs, including placodonts.
The earliest known modern turtle wax ice turtle is proganochelys, though this species already had many advanced turtle traits, and water turtles thus probably happy together turtles had many millions of years of preceding "turtle" evolution and species in its ancestry. It did lack the ability to turtle mosaic pull its head into its shell (and box turtle care it had a long neck), and had a long, spiked tail ending in a club, implying an aquatic turtles ancestry occupying a similar niche to the ankylosaurs (though, presumably, only parallel evolution).
Turtles vary widely in size, green turtle although marine turtles mosaic sea turtle tend to be relatively big animals. The largest chelonian is a marine turtle, the great leatherback common snapping turtle sea turtle, which can reach a shell length of 200 cm turtle food (80 in) and can reach a weight of over 900 kg (2,000 lb, or 1 short turtle bay resort ton). Freshwater turtles are smaller, with the largest species being the Asian softshell turtle turtle identification Pelochelys cantorii, which has been reported to measure up to hawksbill turtle 200 cm or 80 inches (Das, 1991). This ornate box turtle dwarfs even the better-known alligator snapping turtle, the largest chelonian in North America, which attains a shell length of up to 80 cm (31.5 red eared slider turtle in) and a weight of about 76 kg (170 lb). the turtle dove Giant tortoises of the genera Geochelone, Meiolania, and others were relatively widely distributed around baby turtles for sale the world into prehistoric times, and are known to have pet turtle existed in North and South America, Australia, and Africa. They became extinct at the same time as the appearance of turtle diagram Man, and it is assumed that humans hunted them for food. The only turtles happy together surviving giant tortoises are on the Seychelles and Galápagos pet turtle care Islands and can grow to over 130 cm twilight turtle (50 in) in length, and weigh about 300 kg (670 lb) .
The largest ever chelonian was Archelon ischyros, a florida turtles Late Cretaceous sea turtle known to have been turtle drawings up to 4.6 m (15 ft) long .
The smallest turtle is the speckled padloper turtle power tortoise of South Africa. It measures no more than 8 cm (3 in) buy black turtle beans online in length and weighs about 140 g (5 oz). Two other species red ear slider turtles of small turtles are the American mud turtles and turtle clip art musk turtles that live in an area that ranges from Canada to South America. turtle lake The shell length of many species in this group is less than bog turtle 13 cm (5 in) in length.
Turtles are broken down into two groups, according to how they turtle dove evolved a solution to the problem of turtle shell withdrawing their neck into their shell (something the ancestral Proganochelys could not do): the Cryptodira, which can draw their neck in while folding it under leatherback turtle their spine; and the Pleurodira, which have to teenage mutant ninja turtles trailer fold their neck to the side.
Closeup head-on view turtle clipart of a common snapping turtle leatherback sea turtle (Chelydra serpensis
), taken near the St. Lawrence River in northern New York animated turtle State.
Most turtles and tortoises have eyes placed on the upper sides of their heads. Species of turtles that spend teenage mutant turtles most of their life on land have their eyes turtle odyssey looking down at objects in front of them. Some aquatic turtles, such as snapping turtles turtle tanks and soft-shelled turtles, have eyes closer slider turtles to the top of the head. These species of turtles can hide from predators in shallow water where they lie entirely submerged except for their eyes turtle art and nostrils. painted turtle care Sea turtles possess glands near their eyes that produce salty tears that rids their body of turtle creek casino excess salt taken in from the water they mississippi map turtle drink.
Turtles are thought to have exceptional night vision due to the unusually large turtle aquarium amount of rod cells in their retinas. Normal daytime vision is marginal at best due to their color-blindness and poor visual acuity. In addition to daytime turtle figurine vision problems, turtles have very poor pursuit movement abilities, baby turtle which is most likely due to the fact that pursuit turtle supplies movement abilities are normally reserved for predators that hunt quick moving prey.
Turtles use their jaws to cut and chew food. turtle beach resort barbados Instead of teeth, the upper and lower jaws of turtle soup the turtle are covered by horny turtle cheesecake recipe ridges. Carnivorous turtles usually have knife-sharp ridges for slicing through their prey. Herbivourous turtles turtle eggs have serrated edged ridges that help them cut through tough plants. Turtles use their leatherback turtles tongues to swallow food, but they can't, unlike most reptiles, stick out their tongues to catch food.
The upper shell of the turtle is called the carapace. The lower shell that turtle lake casino incases the belly is called the plastron. The carapace and plastron are joined turtle cartoon together on the turtle's sides by bony structures called bridges. The inner layer of a turtle's turtle traps shell is made up of about 60 bones that includes portions baby sea turtles of the backbone and the ribs, meaning the turtle cannot crawl out of its shell. mud turtles mutant ninja turtles In most turtles, the outer layer of the shell is covered by horny scales called scutes that turtle bay vacation rental are part of its outer skin, or epidermis. Scutes turtle coloring page are made up of a fibrous protein called keratin that also makes up turtle tattoo drawings the scales of other reptiles. These scutes overlap the seams between the shell bones and add strength to the shell. Some turtles do not have horny alligator snapping turtles scutes. For example, the leatherback sea turtle and the soft-shelled alligator turtle turtles have shells covered with sea turtle tattoos leathery skin instead.
The shape of the shell gives helpful clues to tattoo gallery of turtles how the turtle lives. Most tortoises have a large dome-shaped shell that makes it difficult for predators to turtle pics crush the shell between their jaws. One of the few exceptions is the African pancake tortoise turtles can fly which has a flat, flexible shell that allows it to hide in rock different types of turtles crevices. Most aquatic turtles have flat, streamlined shells which aid finding nemo turtle in swimming and diving. American snapping turtles and musk turtles have small, cross-shaped plastrons that ninja turtles mp3 give them more efficient leg movement for walking along the bottom of ponds and streams.
Tortoises have rather red ear slider turtle heavy shells in contrast to aquatic and soft-shelled turtles which have lighter shells snapping turtle farm that help them avoid sinking in water and swim yertle the turtle faster and more agilely. These lighter shells have large spaces called fontanelles between the shell bones. The american box turtle shell of a leatherback turtle is extremely light because they lack scutes and baby snapping turtles contain many fontanelles.
The color of teanage mutant ninja turtles a turtle's shell may vary. Shells are commonly coloured brown, black, or olive green. truculent turtle In some species, shells may have red, orange, yellow, or grey markings and these markings are often spots, lines, what do sea turtles eat or irregular blotches. One of the most colorful turtles is the eastern painted turtle which includes wood turtle a yellow plastron and a black or buy turtle meat online olive shell with red markings around identify which kind of turtle the rim.
Skin and Moulting
As mentioned above, the outer layer of the shell is part michael the turtle of the skin, each scute (or plate) on the shell corresponding the turtles mp3 to a single modified scale. The remainder of the skin is composed of skin with much smaller scales, similar to the skin turtle jewelry of other reptiles. turtle necklace Turtles and terrapins do not moult their skins all in one go, as snakes green turtle cay do, but continuously, in small pieces. When kept in aquaria, small sheets of dead skin can be seen in sea turtles pictures the water (often appearing to be a thin piece of plastic), having been sloughed off, often when the animal land turtles deliberately rubs mud turtle itself against a piece of wood or stone. Tortoises also shed skin, but a lot of dead skin is allowed to accumulate into musk turtles thick ninja turtles theme knobs and plates that provide protection to parts of the body outside the shell.
The scutes snapping turtles laying eggs on the shell are never moulted, and as they accumulate over time, the shell becomes thicker. By counting the rings formed by turtle species the stack of smaller, older scutes on top of the larger, newer types of pet turtles ones, it is possible to estimate the gopher turtle age of a turtle, if you know how many scutes are produced in a year . This method is not ninja turtles coloring pages very accurate, partly because river cooter turtle growth rate is not constant, but also because some of the scutes eventually fall away from the shell.
Terrestrial tortoises have short, sturdy texas turtles feet. Tortoises are famous for moving tribal sea turtle slowly, in part because of their heavy shell but also because of the relatively inefficient turtle creek sprawling gait that they have, with the legs being bent, as turtle earrings with lizards rather than being straight and directly under the turtle names body, as is the case with mammals.
The amphibious turtles normally have limbs similar to those of turtle ponds tortoises except that the feet are webbed turtle tatoos and often have long claws. These turtles swim using all four feet in a box turtle eggs way similar to the dog paddle, with the feet on the left and right side candy recipe turtle of the body alternately providing thrust. Large turtles tend to swim less than smaller glass turtle tanks ones, and the very big species, such as aligator snapping turtles, hardly swim at all, trampled by turtles preferring to simply walk along the bottom turtle cake of the river or lake. As well as webbed feet, turtles also have very long claws, turtle cheesecake used to help them clamber onto riverbanks and floating logs, upon which they like to bask. Male turtles tend to have particularly long turtle island fiji claws, turtle trap and these appear to be used to stimulate the female while mating. While most turtles have webbed feet, a eastern painted turtle few turtles, such as the pig-nose turtles, ninja turtles theme song have true flippers, with the digits being fused into paddles and the claws being relatively small. These species swim in the same way pond turtles as sea turtles (see below).
Sea turtles are entirely aquatic and tattoo art sea turtle instead of feet they have flippers. Sea timmy the turtle turtles "fly" through the water, using the an up-and-down motion of the front flippers to generate turtles so happy together thrust; the back feet are not used for propulsion but may be used as rudders for buy turtle online steering. Compared with freshwater turtles, sea turtles have very ninja turtles the movie limited mobility on land, and apart from the dash from the nest spotted turtle to the sea as hatchlings, male sea turtles normally never leave the sea. Females must come back onto turtle graphics land to lay eggs. They move very slowly and laboriously, dragging turtle habitats themselves forwards with their flippers. The back flippers turtle identification pictures are used to dig the burrow and then fill it back with sand once the eggs have turtles for adoption been deposited.
Order Testudines - turtles, tortoises, and terrapins
Gulf Coast Box giant sea turtles Turtle, Terrapene carolina major
Leatherback Sea Turtle, Dermochelys coriacea
Green Sea jack rabbit black turtle beans Turtle, Chelonia mydas
Hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata
Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)
- Family Chelydridae lisa turtle (Snapping Turtles)
- Family Meiolaniidae (Horned turtle, loggerhead turtles extinct)
- Superfamily Testudinoidae
- Family Haichemydidae (extinct)
- Family Sinochelyidae (extinct)
- Family Lindholmemydidae (extinct)
- Family Testudinidae mccoy turtle (Tortoises)
- Family Geoemydidae (Asian River Turtles, Leaf and Roofed Turtles, Asian Box Turtles)
- Family Emydidae (Pond Turtles/Box ninja turtles wallpaper and Water Turtles)
- Superfamily Trionychoidae
- Family Adocidae (extinct)
- Family Carettochelyidae (Pignose Turtles)
- Family Trionychidae (Softshell Turtles)
- Superfamily Kinosternoidae
- Family Dermatemydidae (River Turtles)
- Family Kinosternidae (Mud red eared turtle and Musk Turtles)
- Family Platysternidae (Big-headed Turtles)
- Superfamily Chelonioidae (Sea Turtles)
- Family Toxochelyidae (extinct)
- Family Cheloniidae sea turtle inn (Green Sea Turtles and relatives)
- Family Thalassemyidae (extinct)
- Family Dermochelyidae (Leatherback Turtles)
- Family Protostegidae turtle cartoons (extinct)
- Family Proterochersidae (extinct)
- Family Chelidae (Austro-American Sideneck Turtles)
- Family Araripemydidae (extinct)
- Superfamily Pelomedusoidae
- Family Pelomedusidae (Afro-American Sideneck Turtles)
- Family Bothremydidae (extinct)
- Family Podocnemididae turtle facts (Madagascan Big-headed and American Sideneck River Turtles)
- Jackson ratio
- Tortoise - an alternative turtle tank name used primarily by speakers of British English for terrestrial cecil turtle turtles.
- Turtle racing
- Turtles and tortoises in popular culture
- Turtles all mini pet turtles the way down
- Iskandar, DT (2000). Turtles and Crocodiles of Insular Southeast Asia and New Guinea. ITB, Bandung.
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- Gulf Coast Turtle and Tortoise russian turtles Society: Care Information, Species Descriptions, and More.
- Turtles of the World: Extensive information on all known turtles, tortoises and terrapins, salmonellosis in small turtles including key and quiz.
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