For other uses, see Rocket (disambiguation).
A Redstone rocket, part of the Mercury program
The traditional definition of rocket a rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which rickets obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of rockers fast moving fluid from within a rocket engine. Often the term is also rocketa used to refer to a rocket engine.
- 1 Overview
- 1.1 Uses
- 1.2 Operation
- 1.3 Types
- 1.4 Vehicles
- 1.5 Velocities
- 2 History
- 2.1 Origins rackets rocketts of rocketry
- 2.2 Spread rocets of rocket technology
- 2.3 Modern rocketry
- 3 Net thrust
- 4 Regulation
- 5 Accidents
- 6 Future
- 7 References
- 8 See rockots rockes also
- 9 External rockts links
In military use, rockets generally use solid propellant and are unguided. rokcets Rockets equipped with warheads (representing a form of missile) can rockets be fired by ground-attack aircraft at fixed targets such as buildings, or can be launched by ground forces at sky rockets other ground targets. During the Vietnam era, there were also air-launched unguided rockets that carried a joe rocket leathers nuclear payload designed to attack aircraft formations in flight. In the rocket summer military terminology, the word missile is often preferred over pocket rocket rocket when the weapon uses either solid rocket or liquid propellant, and has a guidance system. (This distinction generally does not apply to civilian or orbital launch vehicles.)
Rockets are used team rocket to accelerate, change orbits, de-orbit rocket man for landing, for the whole landing if there is no atmosphere (e.g. for landing on model rockets the Moon), and sometimes to soften a parachute landing immediately before touchdown bottle rockets (see Soyuz spacecraft).
In all rockets, joe rocket the exhaust is formed from propellant which is carried within the rocket prior to its release. water rockets Rocket thrust is due to the fast release of exhaust gases (see Newton's pocket rockets 3rd Law of Motion).
There are many different types of rockets, and a comprehensive list crotch rockets can be found in spacecraft propulsion- they range in size from rocket dog shoes tiny models such katyusha rocket as water rockets or small solid rockets that can be purchased mp3 rocket at a hobby store, to the enormous Saturn V used for the Apollo program.
Most current rockets are chemically powered rockets water rocket (internal combustion engines) that emit an exhaust gas. A chemical rocket engine can rocket dog use solid propellant (see Space Shuttle's SRBs), liquid propellant bottle rocket (see Space shuttle main engine), or a hybrid rocket power mixture of both. A chemical reaction is initiated between the fuel and the oxidizer in the combustion chamber, and the estes rockets resultant hot gases accelerate out of a nozzle (or nozzles) crotch rocket at the rearward facing end of the rocket. The acceleration of these katyusha rockets gases through the engine exerts force ('thrust') rocket summer on the combustion chamber and nozzle, propelling the vehicle (in accordance with Newton's houston rockets Third Law). See rocket engine for details.
Not all rockets use chemical johnny rockets reactions. Steam rockets, for example, release superheated water cosy in the rocket through a nozzle where it instantly flashes to high velocity steam, propelling the rocket. The efficiency of steam water bottle rockets as a rocket propellant is relatively low, but it is rocket launch simple and reasonably safe, and the propellant is cheap and widely rocket ship available. Most steam rockets have been used for propelling land-based vehicles but a small steam rocket was elton john rocket man tested in 2004 on team rocket jessie board the UK-DMC satellite. There are proposals to use steam rockets for interplanetary transport sun rocket using either nuclear or solar heating as the power source to vaporize water collected from history of rockets around the solar system.
Rockets where the heat is supplied from other than the propellant, love and rockets such as steam rockets, are classed as external combustion engines. model rocket Other examples of external combustion rocket engines include most designs for rocket man elton john nuclear powered rocket engines. Use of hydrogen as rosy rocket the propellant for external combustion engines gives very high velocities.
Due to their red rocket high exhaust velocity (mach ~10+), rockets are particularly useful when very high elton john - rocket man speeds are required, such as orbital speed (mach 25). The speeds that a rocket vehicle space rockets can reach can be calculated by the rocket equation; which gives the speed difference ('delta-v') in terms rocket launcher of the exhaust speed and ratio of initial mass to final mass ('mass rocket fishing rod ratio').
Rockets must be used when katusha rocket there is no other substance (land, water, or air) or force (gravity, magnetism, light) that a 2 liter bottle rockets vehicle may employ for propulsion, such as in space. In these circumstances, it is necessary to carry nasa space rockets all the propellant to be fireworks and rockets used.
Rockets as a group have the highest thrust/weight ratio joe rocket jacket of any type of engine; and this helps vehicles achieve a high mass ratios, which improves performance.
Common mass rocket queen ratios for vehicles are 20/1 for dense propellants such as liquid oxygen and kerosene, 25/1 firework rockets for dense monopropellants such as hydrogen peroxide, model rocket engines and 10/1 for liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. However, mass ratio is highly rocket propelled grenade dependent on many factors such as the type of engine the vehicle pocket rocket bike uses and structural safety margins.
Often, the pokemon team rocket required velocity (delta-v) for a mission is unattainable by any single rocket because the propellant, structure, guidance and engines weigh katusha rockets so def leppard rocket much as to prevent the mass ratio from being high enough. This problem is frequently solved by staging - rina rockets the rocket sheds excess weight (usually tankage and engines) during launch to reduce its weight and toy rockets effectively increase its mass ratio.
Typically, the acceleration of raptors and rockets a rocket increases with time (even if the thrust stays the same) as the weight of razor dirt rocket bike the rocket decreases dirt rocket as fuel is burned. Discontinuities in acceleration will occur when stages burn rocket clipart out, often starting at a lower acceleration with each new stage firing.
Origins of rocketry
According to the writings water bottle rocket of the Roman Aulus Gellius the how to build a rocket first rocket engine seems to have been c.400 BC when a greek pythagorean philosopher named rocket fishing pole Archytas of Tarentum propelled a wooden bird along wires using wrist rocket steam. However, this rocket does not appear to have been powerful enough for taking off under its rocket dog shears own team rocket pokemon steam. Only this single account exists, and if it occurred was written hundreds of years after the fact.
The origin make bottle rockets of rockets as most people think of them dates back over 1,000 years ago when people rocket 88 of rocket igniters pyrotechnics the Han Dynasty in China (c.206 BC–220 AD) began experimenting with gunpowder and fireworks. The explosive force of such pyrotechnics were rocket mania eventually adapted for use in propelling projectiles such as cannon rocket science and musket balls. Such projectiles do not contain their own fuel, and thus do hezbollah rockets not meet space rocket the definition of a rocket. Therefore the use of gunpowder to propel projectiles guns n roses rocket queen is a precursor to the development of the first solid rockets.
The ancient Chinese invention of gunpowder by Taoist alchemists, and how do rockets work their use of it in various forms of rocket man mp3 weapons (fire arrows, bombs, and cannons) resulted in the development of the triumph rocket iii rocket. They were initially developed for religious proceedings that were related to mini crotch rockets the worship and celebration of the Chinese Gods in the ancient rocket phonics Chinese religion. They were the precursors to modern fireworks, and after extensive research, were adapted for use as artillery in v2 rocket mentos rocket warfare during the 10th century to 12th century which is when the rocket launchers earliest documented solid rockets are found. Some of the ancient Chinese rockets were stationed at rocket math the military fortification known as the Great Wall of 49cc pocket rocket China, and employed by the elite soldiers stationed there.
Spread of rocket technology
Rocket technology bottle rocket designs first became known to Europeans following their use by the Mongols Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan when they conquered Russia, parts of a rocket Eastern pop bottle rockets Europe, and parts of Central Europe (i.e. Austria). The Mongolians had stolen the Chinese technology by conquest of the northern part of soda bottle rockets China and also by the subsequent employment of Chinese rocketry experts as rocket kits mercenaries for the Mongol military. triumph rocket Reports of the Battle of Sejo in the year 1241 how rockets work describe the use of rocket-like weapons by the Mongols against the Magyars.
Additionally, the spread of rockets into Europe was pocket rocket motorcycles also influenced by the Ottomans at the siege of Constantinople in 1453, rocket stoves although it is very likely that the Ottomans themselves were influenced by the rocket fuel Mongol invasions of the previous few william shatner rocket man centuries. They appear in literature describing the capture of Baghdad in 1258 by the Mongols.
For over two centuries, the work of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth nobleman Kazimierz Siemienowicz, "Artis Magnae Artilleriae super pocket rocket bikes pars prima" ("Great Art of Artillery, the First Part". also known as razor pocket rocket "The Complete Art of Artillery"), was used in Europe rocket engine as a basic artillery rocket dogs manual. The book provided the standard designs for creating rockets, fireballs, and other pyrotechnic devices. It contained a large chapter on homemade rockets caliber, construction, production and properties of katyusha rocket specifications rockets (for both military and civil purposes), including multi-stage rockets, batteries of rockets, and rockets with delta wing stabilizers (instead hummel gets the rockets mp3 of the common guiding rods).
At the end of the 18th century, peanut echo rocket iron-cased rockets were successfully used militarily in rocket engines India against the British by Tipu Sultan of the Kingdom of Mysore during the Anglo-Mysore balloon rockets Wars. The British then took an bottle rocket launcher active interest in the technology and developed it further during the 19th century. The major figure in the field at how to build a bottle rocket this time was soda bottle rocket William Congreve. From there, the use of military rockets spread throughout Europe. At the Battle of Baltimore in toy rocket 1814, the rockets fired on Fort McHenry by the rocket vessel HMS Erebus were rocket car the source of the rockets' red rocket chassis glare described by Francis Scott Key in The Star-Spangled Banner. Rockets were also used in the rocket from the crypt Battle of Waterloo.
Early rockets toledo rockets were very inaccurate. Without the use of spinning or any gimballing of the thrust, they charlie rocket clothing had a strong tendency to veer sharply off course. The early British Congreve rockets reduced this somewhat by attaching sky rockets in flight a long stick to the end of a rocket (similar to modern bottle pocket rocket parts rockets) to make it harder rocket cars for the rocket to change course. The largest of the Congreve rockets was the 32 pound rocket launches (14.5 kg) Carcass, which had a 15 foot (4.6 m) stick. Originally, sticks the rocket were mounted on the side, but this was later changed to water rocket designs mounting in the center of the rocket, reducing drag and enabling the rocket to hide rocket dive be more accurately fired from a segment of pipe.
Robert Goddard and his mini pocket rockets first liquid-fueled rocket
The accuracy problem was mostly solved in 1844 when William Hale modified the rocket man lyrics rocket design so that thrust was slightly vectored to cause the rocket to spin along its the rocket summer lyrics axis rocket boom of travel like a bullet. The Hale rocket removed the need for a rocket stick, travelled further due to the rocket summer never knew reduced air resistance, and was far more accurate.
In 1903, high school mathematics teacher Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) wrist rocket slingshot published Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами (The Exploration of Cosmic cartoon rockets Space by Means of Reaction Devices), the first serious scientific work on estes model rockets space travel. The Tsiolkovsky rocket equation—the principle that governs rocket propulsion—is named joe rocket jackets in his honor. His rocket boys work was essentially unknown outside the Soviet Union, where it inspired further research, experimentation, and the formation of the Cosmonautics rocket ships Society. His work was republished in the 1920s in response 1967 bsa lightning rocket parts to Russian interest in the work of Robert Goddard. Among other ideas, mini pocket rocket Tsiolkovsky accurately proposed to use liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen rocket in the sky mp3 as a nearly optimal propellant pair and determined that building staged and clustered rockets to increase the sugar motor rocket propellant overall mass efficiency would dramatically increase range.
Modern rockets were born when Robert Goddard attached a supersonic (de Laval) psapp - cosy in the rocket nozzle to a rocket engine's combustion chamber. These nozzles turn the french rocket hot gas from the combustion chamber into a cooler, harmon rocket hypersonic, highly directed jet of gas; more than doubling the thrust and enormously raising the efficiency. Early rockets had been how to make a bottle rocket grossly inefficient sugar rocket because of the heat energy that was wasted in the exhaust gases.
In 1920, Robert team rocket motto Goddard published A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes, the first triumph rocket 3 serious work on using rockets in space travel after Tsiolkovsky. amateur rockets The work attracted world-wide attention and was both praised and ridiculed, particularly because of its joe rocket phoenix 4.0 jacket suggestion that a rocket theoretically could reach the Moon.
In 1923, Hermann Oberth (1894-1989) published Die Rakete reggie rocket zu den Planetenräumen ("The Rocket into Planetary Space"), a version of his doctoral thesis, riley rocket after the University rocket def leppard of Munich rejected it.
In 1926, Robert Goddard launched the world's first liquid-fueled rocket in rocket igniter low voltage capacitor Auburn, Massachusetts.
During the 1920s, a number of rocket research organizations appeared in America, Austria, Britain, Czechoslovakia, apollo 13 rocket France, Italy, Germany, and Russia. In the mid-1920s, German scientists had begun experimenting bottle rocket design with rockets which used liquid propellants capable of reaching relatively high altitudes huntsville space and rocket center and distances. A team of amateur judson rockets rocket engineers had formed the Verein für Raumschiffahrt (German Rocket Society, or VfR) in 1927, and in 1931 mini crotch rocket launched a liquid propellant rocket (using oxygen and gasoline).
From 1931 to 1937, the most model rocket engine extensive scientific work on rocket engine design occurred in Leningrad, at the Gas revell apollo rockets Dynamics Laboratory. Well funded and staffed, over 100 bottle rocket and instructions experimental engines were built under the direction of Valentin Glushko. The work estes rocket included regenerative cooling, hypergolic ignition, and fuel injector designs that included swirling and how to build a water rocket bi-propellant mixing injectors. However, the work was curtailed by kassam rocket Glushko's arrest during Stalinist purges in 1938. Similar but much less extensive work was also done make own rocket by the Austrian professor Eugen Sänger.
In 1932, the pocket rocket motorcycle Reichswehr (which in 1935 became the Wehrmacht) began to take an interest in rocketry. Artillery restrictions imposed by the Treaty saturn v rocket of Versailles limited Germany's 2-liter bottle rockets access to long distance weaponry. Seeing the possibility of using rockets as long-range artillery fire, the Wehrmacht initially funded croch rocket the VfR team, but seeing that their focus was strictly scientific, created khaibar-1 rocket its own research team, with Hermann Oberth as a senior member. rocket mp3 At the behest of military leaders, Wernher von steam rocket Braun, at the time a young aspiring rocket scientist, joined the air surfing on a rocket military (followed by two former VfR members) and developed joe rocket rio long-range weapons for use in World War II by Nazi Germany, notably the A-series of rockets, psapp cosy in the rocket which led to the infamous V-2 rocket (initially called A4).
In 1943, production of the rocket ride V-2 rocket began. The V-2 represented the biggest step forward in rocket stove rocketry ever. The V-2 had an operational range of 300 km (185 miles) rocket wheeler and carried a 1000 kg (2204 lb) warhead, with an amatol explosive soda rocket charge. The vehicle was only different in details from most modern rockets, with turbopumps, triumph rocket 3 windshield inertial guidance and many other chu chu rocket features. Thousands were fired at various Allied nations, mainly England, as well as Belgium fireworks bottle rockets and France. While they could not be intercepted, their guidance system design and single conventional warhead meant how to make bottle rockets that the V-2 was insufficiently accurate against model rocket cars military targets. 2,754 people in England were killed, and 6,523 were wounded before the launch campaign was terminated. nasa rockets While the V-2 did not significantly rachel rockets affect the course of the war, it provided a lethal demonstration of the potential for guided rockets as weapons.
At the reading rockets rocket girl end of World War II, competing Russian, British, and U.S. military and scientific crews raced to capture technology and trained personnel from the rocket knight adventures German rocket program at Peenemünde. Russia and Britain rocket propulsion had some success, but the United States benefited most. The US captured a large surfing on a rocket number of German rocket scientists (many of whom cartoon rocket were members of the Nazi Party, including von cheap 110cc super pocket rocket bikes Braun) and brought them to the United States as part of Operation Paperclip. There elton john rocket man mp3 the same rockets that were designed to rain down on Britain were used instead by scientists as research hummell gets the rockets mp3 vehicles for developing the new technology further. The V-2 evolved into the American match rocket Redstone rocket, used in the early space program.
After the war, rocket pictures rockets were used to study high-altitude conditions, by radio telemetry of temperature and team rocket romance pressure of the atmosphere, water rocket launcher detection of cosmic rays, and further research. This continued in the U.S. under von Braun and the building water rockets others, who were destined to become part of the U.S. scientific complex.
Independently, research charlie rocket continued in the Soviet cozy in the rocket Union under the leadership of Sergei Korolev. With the help of German technicians, def leppard - rocket the V-2 was duplicated and improved as the R-1, R-2 and R-5 m-26 artillery rockets missiles. German designs were abandoned in the late 1940s, and the foreign workers were make rocket sent home. A new series of engines built by Glushko and based on inventions of Aleksei mercury redstone rocket Isaev formed the basis of the first ICBM, the R-7. The R-7 launched the model rocket plans first satellite, the first man into space and the first lunar and planetary pvc rocket sugar propellant probes, and is still in recovery system for water bottle rockets use today. These events attracted the attention of top politicians, along with more money rocket dog plaid joint shoes for further research.
Rockets became extremely military important in the form of intercontinental ballistic missiles rocket dog shoe (ICBMs) when it was realised that nuclear weapons carried on a rocket fins rocket vehicle were essentially not defensible against once launched, and they became the delivery platform of stephenson's rocket choice for these weapons.
Fuelled partly by the 2 liter bottle rocket Cold War, the 1960s became the decade of rapid development of rocket technology in the Soviet Union (Vostok, Soyuz, anti-hail rocket Proton) and in the United States (e.g. X-20 early rockets Dyna-Soar, Gemini), including research in other countries, such as Britain, Japan, Australia, etc. Culminating electric rocket at the end of the 60s with the manned landing on the moon estes rockets mean machine via the Saturn V.
Rockets remain a popular military weapon. The hezbollah rocket use of large battlefield rockets of the V-2 type has given way johnny rocket to guided missiles, but rockets are often used by helicopters mentos coke rocket and light aircraft for ground attack, being more powerful than machine picture of rocket ship cake guns, but without the recoil of a heavy cannon. pocket rocket racing In the 1950s there was a brief vogue for air-to-air rockets, including the AIR-2 'Genie' nuclear rocket, but by qassam rockets the early 1960s these had largely been abandoned in favor of air-to-air missiles.
Hezbollah, a rocket pocket lacrosse Lebanese rocket spanish militant Shia Islamic group, used rockets in its war against Israel in 2006. These weapons, supplied by Syria and Iran, solid rocket fuel included the Arash, the C-802, Fajr-3, Fajr-5, and the Zelzal. (New York the age of rockets Times, July 18, 2006.) Hezbollah fired some 4000 of these rockets on Israel. Only the rocket summer around the clock one hit a military target, killing 12 soldiers. The rest killed dozens of black powder rockets civilians, both build homemade rocket Arabic and Jewish, and caused vast ecological devastation.
However in the heart of many of the crotch rocket motorcycles public, the most important use of rockets is manned spaceflight. Vehicles such as Soyuz for orbital tourism and estes model rocket Spaceship One for suborbital high powered rockets tourism show the way towards greater commercialisation of rocketry, away from government funding, and towards homemade rocket more widespread access to space.
Below is joe rocket pants an approximate equation for calculating the Gross Thrust of a rocket:
exhaust gas mass flow
jet velocity at nozzle exit plane
flow area never knew rocket summer at nozzle exit plane
static pressure pictures of dogs on rockets at nozzle exit plane
ambient (or atmospheric) pressure
Since, pocket rockets for sale unlike a jet engine, a conventional rocket motor lacks an air intake, there pop bottle rocket is no Ram Drag to deduct from the Gross Thrust. Consequently the Net Thrust of a rocket motor is rocket design equal the Gross Thrust.
The term represents the momentum thrust, rocket iii which remains constant at a given throttle setting, whereas the term represents rocket wear the pressure thrust term. At full throttle, the net thrust stewie rocket man of a rocket motor improves slightly with increasing altitude, because the reducing atmospheric pressure increases the pressure thrust us space and rocket center term.
It is however very usual to rearrange water rocket newton's laws lab the above equation slightly:
Where: the effective ballon rocket facts exhaust velocity in a vacuum of that particular engine.
Under international law, the nationality of the owner of a building rockets launch vehicle determines which country is responsible for coke and mentos rocket any damages resulting from that vehicle. Due to this, some countries require that rocket manufacturers and launchers croch rockets adhere to specific regulations to indemnify and first rocket in space protect the safety of people and property funny video clips rocket pack that may be affected by a flight.
In the US any rocket launch that is not classified hobby rockets as amateur, and also is not "for and by the government," must be approved by the Federal how to make rockets Aviation Administration's Office of Commercial Space Transportation (FAA/AST), located in Washington, DC.
Because of joe rocket motorcycle jackets the enormous chemical kelowna rockets energy in all useful rocket fuels (greater energy per weight ratio than explosives, but lower than gasoline), accidents can military rockets and have happened. The number of people injured or model rocket parts killed is usually small because of the great care typically taken, but this record is not nasa rocket perfect.
See Space disasters
- Nuclear thermal rockets have also pocket rocket vibrator been developed, but never deployed; they are particularly promising for redneck rocket launcher interplanetary use because of their high efficiency.
- Neofuel - rocket ebook Nuclear/solar steam rockets for interplanetary use, using abundant extraterrestrial ice.
- Nuclear pulse propulsion rocket from 2 liter pop bottle rocket concepts give very high thrust and exhaust velocities.
- Solar thermal rockets use solar radiation to heat rocket iii pics a propellant.
Another class of rocket-like thrusters in increasingly common use are ion rocket models drives, which use electrical rather than chemical energy to accelerate their reaction mass.
- ^ rocket motors a b NASA Spacelink - "A brief history of rocketry". Retrieved team rocket theme on 2006-08-19.
- List of spaceflights
- Timeline of alkaseltzer rockets rocket and missile technology
- List of rockets
- List of long dog rocket range rockets used in wars
- Balloon rocket
- Bottle rocket
- Bipropellant rocket
- Disappearing rocket
- Hybrid rocket
- Model rocket
- Pulse jet engine
- Pulsed Rocket Motors
- Rocket engine nozzles
- Rocket fuel
- Rocket launch
- Rocket launch easy pvc rockets site
- Rocket mail
- Rocket plane
- Rocket propelled grenade
- Rocket sled
- Sounding rocket
- Solid rocket
- Spacecraft propulsion
- Stalin Organ
- Tripropellant rocket
- Water rocket
- Tsiolkovsky rocket homemade sugar rocket propellant equation
- Fire Arrow
- Shin Ki Chon
Wikimedia hornby stephenson rocket Commons has media related to:
- Governing agencies
- FAA Office of Commercial Space Transportation
- National Aeronautics and Space i want to buy pocket rockets Administration (NASA)
- National Association of Rocketry
- Tripoli Rocketry Association
- United Kingdom Rocketry Association
- Canadian Association of Rocketry
- Hobby Industry ideas for bottle rockets Association
- Radio Control Hobby Trade Association
- Japan Association of Rocketry (site in Japanese)
- Indian Space Research Organisation
- How Rocket Engines Work
- Information sites
- several projects of the Scientific Workgroup for Rocketry and Spaceflight (WARR) (german)
- Encyclopedia Astronautica - Rocket and Missile Alphabetical Index
- Gunter's Space Page - Complete Rocket and Missile Lists
- Experimental amateur Rocketry
- Richard Nakka's Experimental Rocketry Web Site
Lists of Aircraft | Aircraft manufacturers | Aircraft engines | Aircraft engine manufacturers
Airports | Airlines | Air forces | Aircraft weapons | Missiles | Timeline of aviation
Categories: Rocket-powered aircraft | Space launch vehicles | Rocketry